9 common, wide spread, easily recognized mushrooms

Discussion in 'Flora & Fauna' started by aldankirk, Jan 18, 2011.

  1. aldankirk

    aldankirk Guest

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    I was asked by Steve_t to develop a list of 10 common mushrooms. I was only able to come up with 9 that are readily available, and have distinct enough characteristics that they would be easily identified by a novice mushroom hunter. In the following list, I have included my description, as well as the description from the National Audubon Society Field Guide to North Amreican Mushrooms. I did this because I wanted to make sure to provide as much information as possible.

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    Beefsteak Polypore (Fistulina hepatica)

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    Range:
    [​IMG]
    Note: Wide ranging genus, but more common in the Eastern US

    Identifying characteristics:
    This mushroom looks and tastes remarkably like beefsteak. Like a steak, it is pink inside, gelatinous and marbled in appearance. When it's young, it even bleeds a reddish juice when you cut it. As it ages, the color fades to reddish-brown, and the flesh dries out. The cap is 3" - 10" wide, and ¾" - 1½" thick, spoon-shaped to fan-shaped, flat, reddish, soft, and slimy. The pores on the underside are very small, almost too small for my old eyes to make out.

    Field guide description:
    Fleshy, somewhat gelatinous, juicy, spoon-shaped, to semicircular, flat, reddish cap with separate tubes and off-white to pinkish-yellow pores. The cap of this mushroom can be 3"-10" wide, while the flesh is 2-2½" thick. When present the stalk can be 2"-4" long, and 3/8"-1¼" thick, very short, and blood-red. Spores are oval, smooth, colorless to pale yellow. Spore print pinkish-salmon.

    Spore Print:
    Pinkish-salmon

    Habitat:
    On dead oak trunks and stumps, or at base of living oaks.

    Cautions:
    None

    Season:
    July-October

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    King Boletes (Boletus edulis)Cepes, Steinpilz, Porcini, Stensopp, Borowik, Byelii-greeb

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    Boletes are a large and diverse genus. For the purpose of this page we will focus on the characteristics of the most common species, the King Bolete. Kings are the widest ranging, and the most popular of the boletes. Chances are, even if you have never ventured into the forest, you have probably eaten a bolete. used extensively in French, and Italian cooking, they are a large meaty mushroom with a nice mellow flavor.

    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    Looking somewhat like a hamburger bun on a thick stalk, this large reddish-brown capped mushroom has an underside of spongy white, yellowish, olive, orange, red, or brownish pores, rather than gills. This pore layer is easily pulled away from the cap. The cap size can be up to 10" wide. king boletes can also be up to 10" tall. Of the couple of hundred species of boletes, the King Bolete (Boletus edulis) is by far the most tasty.

    Field guide description:
    Cap: Large with a reddish-brown cap 3"-10" wide, convex, becoming nearly flat. In wet weather the cap is moist to sticky, but can be smooth to somewhat pitted, and sometimes cracking in dry weather; brown, reddish-brown or cinnamon-buff. Flesh white.
    Tubes: sunken around stalk; whitish, becoming greenish-yellow. Pores small and round; white when young, sometimes bruising tawny.
    Stalk: are 4"-10" long and ¾"-1 5/8" thick and club shaped, or 1 5/8"-4" thick and bulbous.; whitish to brownish, white-webbed over upper 1/3; webbing below darker, often indistinct. Flesh white.
    Spores: 13-19 x 4-6.5 µ; smooth elliptical.

    Spore Print:
    Olive-brown

    Habitat:
    Typically found on the ground under pine, hemlock, birch, or aspen trees.

    Cautions:
    This mushroom has many varieties of different color, shape, size, and habitat, but all are good to eat.

    Season:
    June - October

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    Chanterelles (Cantharellus spp.)
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    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    Chanterelles are funnel-or trumpet-shaped and have wavy edged caps. They are generally up to 6" tall, and 6" wide. Most are bright orange or yellow, although one, the black trumpet, is brownish-black. Fresh chanterelles have a pleasant, fruity fragrance. On the underside of the cap they have the appearance of gills; but they are actually blunt edged, cross-veined, forked ridges on the underside of the cap running down the stem. To ensure you have a Chanterelle, rather than the toxic jack o'lantern mushroom, check the underside of the cap; If you have sharp gills, you most likely have the jack o'lantern.

    Field guide description:
    Bright yellow to orange cap with wavy margin and yellow-orange, forked, thick-edged ridges descending stalk; fragrant. The Chanterelle does not have true gills, but merely forked ridges descending the stalk; this is the easiest way to differentiate them from the poisonous look a like the Jack O'Lantern.
    Cap: 3/8" - 6" wide; convex, becoming flat with inrolled wavy margin, sunken in center; somewhat finely hairy or fibrous to smooth; yellow to orange-yellow. Odorless or with fragrance like apricots; taste mild to spicy-peppery.
    Fertile surface: Narrow, thickened ridges, forked and crossveined, nearly distant descending stalk; pale yellow to orange.
    Stalk: 1" - 3" long, ¼" - 1" thick, sometimes enlarged at either end; smooth or with small, flattened fibers; yellowish to whitish, sometimes bruising orange. Flesh solid, white.
    Spores: 8-11 x 4-6µ; elliptical, smooth, colorless.

    Spore Print:
    Pale buff to pale yellow.

    Habitat:
    Single to many, on ground under oaks to conifers.

    Cautions:
    Beware of confusing the chanterelle with the toxic Jack O'Lantern, see the box below.

    Season:
    June - September in the Southeast; July - August in the Northeast; September - November in the Northwest; February in California.

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    Chicken Mushroom (Laetiporus sulphureus)Sulfur Shelf

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    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    Chicken of the Woods mushrooms have brilliant orange-red caps and pale sulfur-yellow pore surfaces. As the mushroom ages, it fades to peach or white. Being a true polypore, L. sulphureus always grows on wood; either the trunk of an oak above the ground, or on a fallen log at the height that would have been above the ground. I have also found this mushroom growing on the roots at the base of a tree, but that is rare. The caps are semicircular to fan shaped, and can grow up to a foot wide. They usually grow in groups. I have harvested 20 or more pounds from a single tree.

    Field guide description:
    Single to overlapping clusters of fleshy, smooth, orange-red to orange-yellow caps with sulfur-yellow spores.
    Cap: 2" - 12" wide; usually overlapping, flat, semicircular to fan-shaped; salmon to sulfur-yellow to bright orange, weathering to white; smooth. Flesh ¼" - 1½" thick, white, light yellow or pale salmon.
    Tubes: 1 - 4 mm long. Pores 2 - 4 per mm, angular, bright sulfur-yellow.
    Stalk: (when present) rudimentary.
    Spores: 5 - 7 x 3.5 - 5 µ; broadly elliptical to almost round, smooth, colorless.

    Spore Print:
    White

    Habitat:
    On stumps, trunks, and logs of deciduous trees; also on living trees and buried roots.

    Cautions:
    This mushroom becomes somewhat indigestible as it ages, and in some, causes an allergic reaction, such as swollen lips. Specimens from a few tree hosts, such as eucalyptus, can cause digestive upset. A variety, L. semialbinus, has a salmon colored cap and white pores.

    Season:
    May - September

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    Hen of the Woods (Grifola frondosa)
    [​IMG]

    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    This mushroom is huge, with some specimens reaching 100 lbs or more; It really does look like a large, ruffled chicken, or partridge. It grows from a central point similar to that of a bouquet of grayish-brown, fan-shaped, overlapping caps. The stalks are off center, white, and branching from a single thick base. The underside pore surface is white.

    Field guide description:
    Large, clustered mass of grayish-brown, fleshy, spoon shaped caps with whitish pores and lateral, white stalks branching from a compound base.
    Caps: ¾" - 2¾" wide; overlapping, flat, fan to spoon shaped; grayish to gray-brown; dry, smooth or finely fibrous to roughened. Flesh 3 - 5 mm thick. White.
    Tubes: 2 - 3 mm long; descending stalk. pores (1 -3 per mm) angular, white to yellowish.
    Stalk: rudimentary or very short and thick; many-branched; white, smooth.
    Spores: 5 - 7 x 3.5 - 5 µ; broadly elliptical, smooth, colorless.

    Spore Print:
    White

    Habitat:
    On ground at base of oak and other deciduous trees, and some conifers; also on stumps.

    Cautions:
    Remember that many gilled mushrooms grow in large clumps, but hen-of-the-woods is a pore fungus, and does not have gills. There are some similar species of pore fungi that are tough and inedible. If what you have tastes leathery and unpleasant, chances are you did not pick a Hen of the Woods.

    Season:
    September - November

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  2. aldankirk

    aldankirk Guest

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    Here is the final part of the list...


    Morels (Morchella spp.)

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    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    Morels are a very distinct genus of mushrooms. Looking somewhat like a pine cone on a stalk, morels have a spongy, porous, honeycombed appearance. The stems and caps are hollow. The caps of the white morel are white ridged, with tan pores, and as they age, the ridges and pores become yellowish, changing the name to the yellow morel. I have even heard tell of yellow morels which, in perfect conditions, grow to a foot tall, and become giant morels. I have yet to see this phenomenon, so I lend these fables the same weight as I do stories of unicorns, and fairies. The black morel has black ridges with tan pores. The black morel tends to become darker with age. When the cap has turned predominately to all black, it is unpalatable. Morels only have one look a like; Ascomycete spp., or false morels are a group of mushrooms which at first glance appear to be morels, but upon closer scrutiny their differences become glaringly obvious. While Morels have a porous surface, the surface of false morels have a brain-like appearance.

    Field guide description:
    The black morel; Black ribbed, honeycombed cap on whitish stalk.
    Cap: ¾" - 1 5/8" wide, ¾" - 2" high; elongate and narrowly conical; with dark gray to black longitudinal and radial ribs (sometimes irregular), and long, yellow-brown pits; attached to stalk at base; hollow.
    Stalk: 2" - 4" long, ¾" - 1 5/8" thick; whitish, granular to mealy; hollow.
    Spores: 24 - 28 x 12 - 14 µ; elliptical, smooth, located in pits.

    Habitat:
    Moist woodlands, old orchards, burned areas, coniferous forests especially spruce, sandy soils.

    Cautions:
    While a very tasty edible, some people do experience gastric upset when eating black morels. This may be due to the fact that black morels are thought to be composed of numerous varieties. This means that a person can eat black morels one time with no ill effect, and end up sick to their stomachs the next time.

    Season:
    April - May

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    Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)

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    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    A large white, tan or ivory-colored mushroom, it gets is name for the oyster shell-like shape of its cap, which is 2" - 8" wide. The mushroom has white gills running down a short, off center stem, and the flesh is very soft. P. ostreatus is usually found in large clusters of overlapping caps and always on wood.

    Field guide description:
    Broad, fleshy, white, gray or brown cap with broad, whitish or yellow tinged gills arising from attachment to wood or small, hairy, stub-like stalk; on wood.
    Cap: 2" - 8" wide; oyster shaped, semicircular to elongated; margin lobed to wavy at times; moist, smooth; white to ash or brownish. Flesh thick, white. Odor pleasant.
    Gills: descending stalk, close to nearly distant, narrow to broad, thick; white, becoming yellowish.
    Stalk: (when present), ¼" - 3/8" long, ¼" - - 3/8" thick; off center to lateral, short, stout, solid; dry, white-hairy.
    Spores: 7 - 9 x 3 - 3.5 µ; narrowly elliptical, smooth, colorless.

    Spore Print:
    White to pale lilac-gray.

    Habitat:
    On many deciduous trees, especially willow and aspen; rarely on pine and hemlock; sometimes on burried stumps.

    Cautions:
    This choice edible should be checked for white grubs.

    Season:
    This is one mushroom that can be enjoyed year round under favorable conditions.

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    Puffballs (Lycoperdon spp. and Calvatia spp.)

    [​IMG]

    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    Puffballs can be enormous; sometimes up to 2 feet in diameter. Depending on their size, puffballs can be mistaken for everything from golf balls to soccer balls. These round or pear-shaped mushrooms are almost always whitish, tan or gray and may or may not have a stalk-like base. The surface can be smooth to rough or scaly. The interior of a young choice puffball is solid white; as the mushroom ages the interior gradually turns yellow, then brown. Finally, at the end of its life cycle, the interior changes to a mass of dark, powdery spores.

    Field guide description: (Giant Puffball - Calvatia gigantea)
    Huge, white, smooth sphere, cracking irregularly at maturity; interior white, becoming yellowish-green to brownish.
    Mushroom: 8 - 20" wide, sometimes larger; round or nearly so, with root-like attachment; smooth, kidlike, cracking irregularly; no pore formed at top; white. spore mass white, becoming yellow-green to greenish-brown; no sterile base evident.
    Spores: 3.5-5.5 µ; round, smooth to minutely warted, greenish-brown

    Habitat:
    Single or in arc or fairy rings, in open woods, pastures, parks, or lawns.

    Cautions:
    It is important to cut a puffball down the center. You want to make sure the interior is bright white, and has no sighs of any yellow or brown areas. More importantly, it is important to make sure there is not the indication of a developing mushroom with cap, gills, and stem within the mushroom. If there is, you have the extremely poisonous Amanita spp.

    Season:
    Late May - mid July; August - October.

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    Shaggy Mane (Coprinus comatus)

    [​IMG]

    A member of the ink cap family, the shaggy mane is large and quite distinctive in appearance. This makes it an excellent target for first novice mushroom hunters. The shaggy mane is the largest of a group of edible mushrooms called inky caps. The field guides listed at the below can help you identify other members of this group as well.

    Range:
    [​IMG]

    Identifying characteristics:
    The cap of the shaggy mane is long, white, cylindrical, with shaggy, upturned, brownish scales. It is 4"- 6: tall, with whitish gills. As the shaggy mane ages, the cap and gills become black, and inky; they eventually dissolve, leaving only the standing stalk.

    Field guide description:
    Cylindrical, shaggy-scaly, white cap turning inky from liquifying gills.
    Cap: 1¼" - 2" wide, and 1 5/8" - 6" high; cylindrical, gradually expanding as gills liquify, leaving only stalk; dry, covered with flat scales becoming down-curled; white with light reddish-brown scales.
    Gills: free or nearly so, very crowded; white becoming black and inky from margin to stalk top.
    Stalk: 2 3/8" - 8"long, 3/8" - ¾" thick; bulbous, white; hollow, with central strand of minute fibers.
    Veil: partial veil leaving ring on lower part of stalk.
    Spores: 11-15 x 6.3-8.5 µ; smooth, elliptical, blunt, with pore at tip.

    Spore Print:
    Black

    Habitat:
    Scattered to clustered and common, in grass, wood chips, and hard-packed soil.

    Cautions:
    Shaggy manes are best when picked before the caps begin to turn black. Until you become proficient at identifying this edible, it may be necessary to check for the developing ink to make sure you have the correct mushroom.

    Season:
    May - early June: September - October; November-January in Southeast.

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    For more information, and additional pictures, visit my website.

    Some Images courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

    Reference: National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms, Lincoff, Knopf, Copyright 1981, 1997
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Jan 18, 2011
  3. steve_t

    steve_t Guide

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    Thanks, Aldankirk, 9 is plenty and quite a few of them are common in Eurasia as well, so even I will get some use out of this. Reason I asked is that there are too many variants in many handbooks and you can both spend a lot of time finding what you are looking at, or get them mixed up. Thanks for a small, clear and manageable selection :dblthumb:
     
  4. BushyBeard

    BushyBeard Scout

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    Very nice list, i would add the "meadow Mushroom as # 10 anouther abundit in north america and very choice
    page 153/154 and 505 national audubon looks like your everyday white mushroom - make sure its got BROWN GILLS
     
    Last edited: Jan 18, 2011
  5. Independent

    Independent Scout

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    Thanks. There's a thin little booklet that I like to recommend to people AFTER they have gone out several times with a trained mycologist in their area. It's called "Start Mushrooming" by Stan Tekiela and Karen Shanberg http://www.amazon.com/Start-Mushrooming-Stan-Tekiela/dp/0934860963 It takes the simple tact of pointing out (6) edible fungi in North America that are pretty hard to mistake for others: (morel, oyster, shaggy mane, sulfur shelf, giant puffball and hen-of-the-woods)

    For more in-depth looks I like "A Field Guide to Southern Mushrooms" http://www.amazon.com/Field-Guide-Southern-Mushrooms/dp/0472856154/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1295405401&sr=1-1 and "Mushrooms of North America" http://www.amazon.com/Mushrooms-North-America-Roger-Phillips/dp/0316706132/ref=tmm_pap_title_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1295405527&sr=1-1, BUT neither of those should be used as a stand alone reference to what is safe to eat without expert guidance. Europeans in the states should take particular heed not to assume that things that appear to be recognizable are identical to what you are used to harvesting and eating elsewhere. We have many lookalikes here that are not edible. If in any doubt, do not eat.
     
  6. tford

    tford Scout

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    thanx for the work on this........great post.........
     
  7. aldankirk

    aldankirk Guest

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    This list is comprised of mushrooms that have at least one easily identifyable characteristic, which makes them easy for the novice hunter. You are correct, the Meadow Mushroom (Agaricus campestris) is a widely available good edible, which is cloely related to the commercially cultivated button mushroom. I did not include it because of its close growth proximity to, and similar characteristics of the deadly white Amanitas. Making a mistake could be deadly. There is simply nothing that definitely identifies the meadow mushroom.

    Kirk
     
  8. BushyBeard

    BushyBeard Scout

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    Hear ya! well said :8:
     
  9. Bivouacjack

    Bivouacjack Tracker

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    Mushrooms

    Dont forget theres the psilocyben cubensis. There not much on the nutrition side but they sure eliminate boredom.
     
  10. rimfire63

    rimfire63 Scout

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    Ha Ha! Take a trip and never leave the farm!
     
  11. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    A note on the Shaggy Manes:

    Once the ink starts to appear on the skirt, they are often going to seed inside faster. That, and ones that have started to turn black will turn completely within hours, and those I've picked usually don't even make it home in time.
    Since they grow in groups, better to look for the seeding heads for positive ID, and then pick the younger ones near them.
     
  12. aldankirk

    aldankirk Guest

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    Not quite the type of fungi I would recommend to anyone n a survival situation.
     
  13. Prime Zombie

    Prime Zombie Guest

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    Regarding the King Bolete:

    Are you sure about that? What about:

    These two are poisionous
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus_satanas
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus_pulcherrimus

    These two are inedible
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylopilus_felleus
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boletus_calopus


    But most of these kinds of mushrooms are edible. Here in Sweden the King B. (Karl Johan sopp) is prized by many Swedes. I think it is pretty good, but I think the gold Chantarelle is the best by far. Never had that weird beefsteak mushroom, might have to look into that one...

    But thanks for all the info and pics and such. I love wild mushrooms. Last year was a great shroom year for my family. We got over 13kgs total of three different kinds of wilds shrooms.
     
  14. cloudraker

    cloudraker Guide

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    While I really like wild mushrooms, I will not pick them unless there are no poisonus lookalikes. Chantreles and orange caps are about the only ones I will use in my area.
    I do buy small bales impregnated with mushroom spores and grow my own. Oyster mushrooms are a family favorite.
     
  15. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    Chanterelle, Morel, Shaggy Mane and puff balls are about it for me. Hard to mistake them for anything else.
     
  16. Bravo Tango

    Bravo Tango Scout

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    As someone very new to foraging and wild edibles I really appreciate this post. Most of my knowledge is theoretical and based off different books. You made identifying these 9 very easy. Thank you
     
  17. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    Good point, intended or otherwise.
    Fungi are parasites. They live off other media. While we may love them on our steaks, or roast game, and collecting them is a rewarding hobby, they have very, very little nutritional value by themselves. In a survival situation, with a compromised immune system and an empty stomach, it's probably wise to leave them off your foraging list.
     
  18. aldankirk

    aldankirk Guest

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    I think many people miss the original reason behind this thread. Each mushroom I listed cannot be mistaken for anything poisonous; each has unique characteristics which make identification fool proof. The only one that can even remotely be mistaken is the chanterelle. At first glance, it appears very similar to the jack-o-lantern mushroom. The characteristic that easily and unmistakably identifies the chanterelle are the ridges under the cap which extend down the stem. While they appear to be gills, they are not. It you find a mushroom you think is the chanterelle, and it has gills, you have the poisonous jack-o-lantern.

    I am sorry the original post is so verbose, but I think if you go back and carefully read each entry, you will see each is safe for the novice mushroomer.

    I could have included many other very common, and very tasty mushrooms, but they could easily be mistaken for toxic varieties.
     
  19. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    Well, I'm a novice, in that I stick with mushrooms that haven't poisoned me in the past. I have a few nicely illustrated photo guides on my bookshelf. I've done the spore print thing, and even done the 30 minute taste test a few times. If fungi were up on the top of the nutrition/medical charts, I'd be more serious about it. I found a few of which I like the taste, so I just stick with them these days. With the exception of the Beef Steak, and Boletus, they are all in your presentation. (Quite a good one, by the way...:dblthumb:)
    I've pretty much avoided the Boletus, because there are just too many variables to make me comfortable. Plus the last one I picked was riddled with little creepy, crawly bugs... :p :D
     
  20. Prime Zombie

    Prime Zombie Guest

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    I agree with you to an extent.

    There is, however, some nutritional value to be had from certain mushrooms. And in a survival situation, if you stumble across a big ring of good shrooms, they are easy to harvest and many can be eaten raw. So you lose very little energy gathering them. I have found patches of shrooms that have yielded me half a kilo. Plus some mushrooms, like the chanterelle, have good amounts of vitamins and minerals like vitamin D (212IU) and Potassium (506mg). And having 1.49g protein per 100g chanterelle ain't so bad. If you eat half a kilo that's 7.45g protein, which is like eating a handful of peanuts (about 33g which gives you 7.89g protein). Certainly better than nothing, and mighty tastey too.

    The above data I looked up here, search under Mushrooms, Chanterelle, raw, and Peanuts, all types, dry-roasted, with salt.

    Here is some info from the wikipedia page:

    I don't mean to be the nit-picky nerd in this thread, I just happen to have a big interest in wild mushrooms! :)
     
  21. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    Not nit-picky at all! That's valuable information, and dispels one misconception.
     
  22. ozrkmtnman

    ozrkmtnman Scout

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    It has been my experience that eating too many shrooms can cause diarhea, which causes water loss. While that may not be a significant problem in any but the more arid areas, where water is hard to find, it may be something to consider.
     
  23. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    I think of that, too. My wife and I love mushrooms, but my wife had a serious reaction to eating a huge stuffed store-bought Portobello once. I know from experience I would probably have a reaction to eating a pound of any mushroom at one sitting...especially on an empty stomach.
     
  24. aldankirk

    aldankirk Guest

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    All things in moderation. I would never espouse the use of mushrooms in excessively large quantities. Where they shine, in my opinion, is as an additions to round out your meal.

    I love edible wild plants, and definitely use them more than anyone I know, but lets be honest, they can get quite boring. The addition of mushrooms can really brighten up an otherwise drab boring meal. One of my favorite side dishes is dandelion greens sauteed with burdock root, ramps, mushrooms, and crispy bacon. I love to roast small mammals whole. I have found stuffing the body cavity with a stuffing of sort can add a wonderful dimension. One of my favorite "stuffings" is a mixture of ramp, wild carrot root and stem, cattail shoots, mushrooms, and grubs. I know that last word probably lost quite a few of you, but hear me out. Most wild game has very little fat, or nutrients. We have all heard the idea of rabbit starvation... The added grubs in your stuffing release a wonderful amount of fat and nutrients into the meat. If you take the time to cut them up when you assemble the stuffing, you will not even see them in the finished result. But I digress; getting back to the mushrooms; they steam beautifully, and are quite succulent when they pick up the fat from that last addition we discussed. LOL
     
  25. Old Philosopher

    Old Philosopher Banned Member Banned

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    Someone started a thread on "food prejudices" that I did even read. But if it walks, crawls or flies, I've probably tried it at least once.
    Pine Martin has less fat than a rabbit. Grubs filled the void. If some things contains protein, fat, carbs and fiber, eating them will serve you well.

    There's another side of the coin, and I know it's nothing new to you. Some people complain that wild edibles upset their systems. We are so conditioned to processed foods, with additives, that a change to a 'healthy' diet causes distress. It's not the new food causing it, it's the detoxification of our bodies that they're experiencing. Anyone who's gone through a food 'detox' program knows how traumatic it can be. :eek:
     

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