Navigation Thread

Discussion in 'Other Skills' started by Shnick, Dec 5, 2012.

  1. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    This thread is a repository of Navigation resources, lessons, books and anything related to not getting lost while in the great outdoors.
    Feel free to provide what you know and let others learn from it.

    If the mods decide to give Nav its own forum, it'll be easier to move the info from here to there.
    Either way, the info belongs in the Skills forum instead of "Suggestions".
    Here are a few of the links I have already mentioned.

    Training:
    Colorado State and the Institute of Navigation (ION)
    FM 3-25.26
    Washington State .pdf lesson Plan
    USGS Page on "Find your way with Map and Compass"
    landnavigation.org's 4 Part Lesson on Basic, Intermediate, Advanced and Expert Land Nav Skills (in PDF or PPT)
    Libre Map Project

    Map Resources:
    The Bureau of Land Management GeoCommunicator Website.
    LSIS Energy Rangeland Site Mapper (All Layers)
    Trimble Outdoors Website
    The University of Texas at Austin
    NOAA Magnetic Declination Calculator


    Books:
    Be Expert with Map and Compass by Björn Kjellström
    The Essential Wilderness Navigator: How to Find Your Way in the Great Outdoors", Second Edition by David Seidman and Paul Cleveland


    Apps:
    Backpacker GPS Trails
    Backcountry Navigator
     
    Last edited: Aug 27, 2013
  2. nikao

    nikao Scout Bushclass II

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    Thanks for doing this. Can't wait for the challenges
     
  3. Beginnersbushman

    Beginnersbushman Scout Bushclass II

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    Sweet! I will be looking forward to this as well.
     
  4. Iz

    Iz MEMBER of a BANNED Bushclass I Bushclass Instructor

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    This is all I got

    Navigating with a lensatic compass and map
    [video=youtube;8a-RvrR_IOo]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a-RvrR_IOo[/video]

    [video=youtube;Y9PMLXLQa4Y]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y9PMLXLQa4Y[/video]

    [video=youtube;3QlhsuwVj5g]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QlhsuwVj5g[/video]

    [video=youtube;wFJm4OFulDA]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFJm4OFulDA[/video]

    Navigating with only a compass
    [video=youtube;Sa3ZSwuoQEc]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sa3ZSwuoQEc[/video]

    Navigating with only a map
    [video=youtube;Fm78PS4vcnE]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fm78PS4vcnE[/video]
     
  5. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Thanks Iz, your series is what I started with...
     
  6. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    Learning land navigation, like anything else, consists of acquiring a number of individual skills, practicing them separately, and then combining and practicing those skill sets in groups or exercises.

    The exercise described in my video is a combination of these skills:

    * Following a bearing with an orienteering compass
    * Measuring distance by pace count
    * Using ranger pace beads

    Each of these skills could be separate lessons or videos in their own right, and it is assumed that you have developed those sub-skills before working on this larger exercise.

    Note also, that land navigation usually uses both map and compass. This exercise builds compass and measuring skills that can be combined with map navigation later. Plus, it gets you out and practicing right away.

    Of course, the exercise is most effective when one persons sets up the course, and another follows it. You can do the exercise solo by setting up a course outbound, and following it back to the starting point "Hansel and Gretel" style. Keep the pace counts and back-azimuths in a notebook for that variation.

    I have set these courses up that led hikers to a new campsite, back to the parking area a new "scenic" route, or just around a loop back to the starting point.

    Since I taught vector analysis in my high school physics course, this exercise allowed students to practice the concepts of vector addition in polar form with a practical hands-on exercise.

    [video=youtube;TeZWq1Svr0w]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TeZWq1Svr0w[/video]
    *
     
    Last edited: Dec 6, 2012
  7. Beginnersbushman

    Beginnersbushman Scout Bushclass II

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    Great Video Professor! Looks like a perfect exercise for a newbie. Looks like a Vector Hike is in my near future. Thanks to IZ as well, I'll be watching those vids later today..
     
  8. BradGad

    BradGad Scout

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  9. cellis

    cellis Post less. Do more. Supporter Bushclass II

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    Seconded on that book. I first learned of it from GreyOne on another post and loved it. Also if this goes further the book shows a great progression of drills to learn orienteering, it might be something to base a tutorial on. I still need to do them myself, I feel I understand everything in the book pretty well but practice is different as always.

    The one thing I would fault it with is declination teaching by the way. I had that nailed before they taught it and now I am completely confused about it after reading that part over and over.


    Also Iz's videos are really good as he posted before. I especially liked the 2nd to last one where he does it without a map and draws it.
     
    Last edited: Dec 6, 2012
  10. AnthonySmithXR

    AnthonySmithXR Guide

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  11. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Declination kills me until i do it in the field. I cant teach it well but i can show it... make sense?
     
  12. BradGad

    BradGad Scout

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    Yeah, I'd have to agree with you there.

    And "East is least and west is best" has to be about the most unhelpful mnemonic ever coined.

    Instead of approaching it as a matter of "doing math", as it were, what worked for me was to just too study and absorb a map like this...

    DeclinationMap_US.jpg

    The map lets me see how declination works, and I can always picture how my needle is naturally going to veer east or west, depending on which side of the agonic line I'm on. Once you've got this in your head, when you're out in the field actually doing it -- like Schnick says -- you can fairly easily correct for declination by a thought process like "OK, I know declination is 7 degrees... I'm east of the agonic line, so my compass needle is veering <--- that way, toward the agonic line. I'll compensate by adding 7 degrees ---> that way."
     
    Last edited: Dec 6, 2012
  13. AnthonySmithXR

    AnthonySmithXR Guide

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    Last edited: Dec 6, 2012
  14. AnthonySmithXR

    AnthonySmithXR Guide

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    I thought 'east least, west best' had to do with converting grid north to magnetic north or vise versa. If the you want magnetic north on the map and it's east of grid north, subtract, if it's west, add. I may be way off though, I'm very new to navigation.

     
    Last edited: Dec 6, 2012
  15. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    It's interesting to compare the 2010 map to one made in the 90's.
    Back then the agonic line passed thru the NW tip of Florida and passed thru NE Minnesota. It's shifted some in the years...

    Yeah.. If I dont have a compass in front of me, I'm confused. E
    asy for me though, instead of 5 degrees east, in a few weeks I'll be 5 degrees west! LOL

    Watch me get it wrong the first time out... HEH HEH!
     
  16. nikao

    nikao Scout Bushclass II

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    Looks like I know what I am doing on my Three day weekend. Thanks for all the videos
     
  17. BradGad

    BradGad Scout

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    Declination

    ...
     
    Last edited: Dec 12, 2012
  18. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Keep the good info coming folks!
     
    Last edited: Dec 12, 2012
  19. nikao

    nikao Scout Bushclass II

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    Iz a trick I read in a book (could not find it but will edit so they get the credit) for a back azimuth is too just box the south end of the needle as north. I had not heard the LARS rule before that is way easier to remember then the "East is least and West is best" thing. Thanks for your videos.
     
  20. Crco

    Crco Scout

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    Great thread, Shnick. I'll give a +1 to Kellstrom's book as well. Most compass and orienteering folk I know wax poetic about the book .... and it was a useful primer for me as well.

    A good addition to this thread would be smartphone navigation apps (for iPhone and Droid). I wish I had the time to go into detail about my fave iPhone apps. But that will have to wait for another day.
     
  21. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Thanks! I'm on it...
    Trimble Outdoors and Backpacker magazine have a Partner App that can track your movements, take photos and movies along the trail, and upload it to the Trimble site in one package. You can also download other peoples trips and follow in their footsteps.

    Check it out here: Backpacker GPS Trails

    Edit:
    Here is one of my past hikes in at the Rock Hawk Effigy Trails near Eatonton Ga.
     
    Last edited: Dec 8, 2012
  22. Pawoodsman

    Pawoodsman Guide

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    I just need to get out and practice more, Got lazy hiking designated trails
     
  23. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    A quick note on how to reverse your course using a "Back Azimuth".
    We often have to reverse course to backtrack to a landmark or find a spot we've already passed.
    [​IMG]
    An "Azimuth" is just a direction from where you are. Nothing more.

    Let's say Keyser Soze is hiking to his favorite fishing spot at an azimuth of 293° (Northwest)
    Oh no! He forgot his tackle box...
    Will our fearless hero get back to the truck to get his fishing kit? How will he do it?

    Simple. He subtracts 180° from his current heading (azimuth) of 293°. We get 113°.
    So he sets his compass and heads back to the truck.

    Some hours later he catches his fish...
    [​IMG]
    and bids it a fond farewell...
    [​IMG]

    NOTE:
    If your current heading is less than 180, then add. if it's more than 180, subtract.
    This will keep you mathematically between 0° and 360°.

    Up next, Identifying Topo Relief Features
     
    Last edited: Dec 12, 2012
  24. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Topo Relief Features

    Topo maps can get cluttered, especially the 1:250K maps.
    Those wiggly lines on your map indicate the contours of the terrain area around you as well as altitudes, normally measured in feet above Sea Level.

    When we look at a map we can see obvious features like highways, lakes and cities, but in the remote areas we may not be able to reference these points. Hills, ridges, cliffs, valleys and spurs can help us in figuring out where we are, and more importantly, how far we are from our objective.

    Hill: The most common feature on our map, a hill has a distinct set of concentric rings and will have the highest altitude labeled on the top most ring.
    As with all contour lines, the closer they are together on the map the steeper the terrain.
    [​IMG]

    Cliff: A cliff is one of those things you would like to see on a map BEFORE you walk over it.
    Very narrowly-spaced or converging lines will show where cliffs are. Look at the ground, not the map.
    [​IMG]

    Depression: A depression is a shallow dent in the ground, sometimes caused by a dried up lakebed or a limestone sinkhole.
    [​IMG]

    Ridge: The ridgeline is the easiest way to walk and still keep an eye on the valleys below. If you follow a ridgeline, you'll easily find your way. It's normally indicated by a dashed line. - Example: The Continental Divide
    [​IMG]

    Spurs:
    No, not the San Antonio Spurs, these are left over from erosion. They often extend from the ridge all the way down to the valley floor.
    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Dec 12, 2012
  25. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Valley A valley is the concave or inner area between spurs. This is where gold prospectors would concentrate their digging.
    [​IMG]

    Saddle: This is the area between two neighboring hills. An hourglass design will indicate this on a map.
    [​IMG]

    Draws: These have steeper sides than valleys, but are still caused by water runoff or heavy erosion.
    [​IMG]

    Cut/Fill: Railroads or highways are sometimes cut or filled into the terrain to make ascending and descending easier.
    This is indicated on the map as a series of hashed lines parallel to a road or railway.
    [​IMG]

    Quiz: Match the following terrain features to the patterns on the map.

    Cut
    Fill
    Depression
    Ridge

    Hill
    Saddle
    Cliff
    Spur
    Valley
    Draw


    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Dec 12, 2012
  26. riverjoe

    riverjoe Supporter Supporter

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    Great stuff Snick . We used to call spurs fingers . Back in 1968 when I read a map in the mountains all of the time I usually used an azimuth to prove what I thought was true , really was true . ie "I think Im on this mountain , but if I was ,that spur , draw , saddle would be at such and such degrees ."
    If I don't prove this is the mountain Im on then I might call an air strike on my own mountain instead of the one I think the enemy is on . Delta Co. 2/327 101st Airborne . This was our sister company and I witnessed that air strike back in 68 .

    Sometimes I feel like John Goodmans character in that movie " The Big Lebowsky " . Remember everything he said or did was related to the NAM .
     
  27. Keyser Söze

    Keyser Söze Usual Suspecto Supporter Bushcraft Friend

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    nahhh i just drop bread crumbs like Hansel und Gretel
     
  28. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    With all the recent interest in land navigation, and all of the other great posts in this thread, I decided to get out in the woods, practice the skills and video them. The result was pretty horrible: The video ran too long, the narration was rambling and disjointed ( so what's different? ) and the camera work was poor, because I did it myself. I zoomed out when I meant to zoom in, and panned waaay too fast so viewers would feel seasick. While zoomed in all the way, I got lost and couldn't find my objective on the map, even though it was only two inches away!

    After wading through the entire recording this morning, I decided to scrap it and try again. The usual disclaimers will apply to this new series:

    I am not a professional navigator, nor do I claim to be. This series will be about how I approach land navigation problems; I am not telling you how you should do it. My formal training in land navigation consists of reading Kjellstrom's book, and studying the one-page brochure that came with the Silva Polaris compass I bought 25 years ago.

    On the positive side, I have taught vector analysis, English-metric conversions, ratio and proportion and trigonometry to high school and college students for more than a generation; and what's more I just got this new document camera and screen-recording software and wanted an excuse to try it out!


    The series is in five parts:


    1. Planning my trip using USGS topographic maps, Google Earth images and photocopied enlargements of portions of the topos.


    2. Pace counting and pacing beads


    3. Managing map scales and unit conversions.


    4. Converting the trip plan into a series of displacement vectors.


    5. Taking the hike and practicing the skills.


    If I can salvage enough content from yesterday to make video #5, ok; if not, I'll make the trip again, and coerce Mary Ann to come along as videographer next time!

    Here's video #1: Let's talk about how you approach trip planning.

    [video=youtube;iQPJqBGDc7U]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iQPJqBGDc7U[/video]
     
    Last edited: Dec 14, 2012
  29. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    Land Nav 2: Pace Counting

    In this segment, I calibrated my "backwoods odometer" by pace counting. First, I measured off 100 meters (328 feet) and set a flag at each end for reference. I have successfully used chalk marks on a sidewalk to accomplish the same purpose. For the video, I used a 100 foot tape measure; but at other times I used a measuring wheel borrowed from the college maintenance staff.

    Walking consistently is the key to accurate outdoor measurements. I walked the 100-meter course several times, counting paces, or "double steps" as I went. Doing this repeatedly yielded an average of 62 paces for the 100-meter distance. Walking uphill and down, through snow or across rough ground will likely affect this count somewhat, but errors of less than 5% are pretty normal.

    For measuring distances more than 100 meters, pace beads are a convenient way to keep track of the distance covered. Essentially an abacus-on-a-string, the typical set has 2 groups of beads: nine on one side of a knot, and 4 on the other. Moving one bead of the nine to the knot would represent 100 meters, two for two hundred and so on. When 1000 meters has been covered, I would slide the nine beads back to their original position, and slide one bead of the group of four to the knot to indicate that distance: 1 kilometer.

    [video=youtube;wsxi2vUqzCU]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wsxi2vUqzCU[/video]
     
  30. riverjoe

    riverjoe Supporter Supporter

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    There is a little book I like a lot thats sort of simplistic and probabley geared toward teenagers but it has some nifty little tips I think . One of these is this distance wheel that clicks on every revolution that author uses to make maps of his AO .

    Another is knowing the prevailing winds in your intended hiking area . For instance around here 90 per cent of the time the wind is westerly maybe north westerly , maybe south westerly but always west .
    This would be useful only when compileing information to determine your direction .
    From the book " Cache Lake Country "

    [​IMG]
     
  31. Crco

    Crco Scout

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    With all the quality contributions given to this thread by Shnick, TheProfessor, BradGad and RiverJoe .... this thread has turned in to one of my all-time faves here at BCUSA.

    Congrats, Gentlemen ... it's enlightening and educating threads like this one that make this forum site one of the best.
     
  32. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    Land Nav 3: Maps and Scales

    Topographic maps have scales at the bottom showing the relationship between distances on the map to actual distances on the ground. A common scale is 1:24000, which means that 1 inch on the map corresponds to a distance of 2000 feet on the ground. In the metric system, 1 mm on the map corresponds to a distance of 24 meters on the ground.

    Furthermore, 4 mm on the map is about 1 pace bead, if you calibrated your pace count as I did in the second segment.

    To avoid any math at all, simply notice that the metric scale of the map shows divisions of 0.1 kilometer or 100 meters, which to us "pace counters" is one bead!

    Simply mark the edge of an index card with these markings and we have a ruler that reads directly in beads.

    This works even if you enlarge sections of your map on a photocopier. When you enlarge the map, also enlarge the scales at the bottom and mark your "bead ruler" as you did before.

    [video=youtube;EZrnJpx8xiA]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZrnJpx8xiA[/video]
     
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2012
  33. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    Land Nav 4: Vectors

    In this fourth part of my land navigation series, I will show how I did the final preparation for a land nav practice outing to a small hilltop about a half-mile from where I parked my truck. As luck would have it, my free trial of the video capture software ended unexpectedly, and I can't renew my access until IT staff come to work on Monday. So I will use the still image capture of my new document camera instead!

    My trip was divided into four "displacement vectors" connected head-to-tail. Notice that I followed the plan outlined in the first video of the series, rather than going directly from point A (my truck) to point B (the objective hilltop), because the straight-line distance, while the shortest is usually more difficult!

    Here is the trip overview with the arrows penciled in:

    Trip Map.jpg

    The first vectors both proceed straight north, the first along the road, and the second inside the gate, using the fence line as a handrail. I measured the distances of these vectors with my "bead ruler" from part 3.

    Vector 1 magnitude.jpg

    Vector 2 magnitude.jpg

    I called vector 1 240 meters at 0 degrees. The second was 175 meters at 0 degrees. For the third vector, I had to take a compass shot across an open field. I measured the distance as before:

    Vector 3 magnitude.jpg

    I called it 275 meters. Next I had to measure the angle or the compass heading by laying one side of the compass base along the vector in the way I wanted to go, and twisted the compass dial until a north-south grid line from the map ran parallel with the blue lines in the back of the rotating dial. Luckily, our magnetic declination is so small here (about 1 degree west) that I was able to disregard it. I called this angle 43 degrees.

    Vector 3 direction.jpg

    Continued...
     
    Last edited: Dec 15, 2012
  34. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    Land Nav 4: Vectors (cont)

    Repeating the process of measuring as before: the length of vector 4:

    Vector 4 magnitude.jpg

    I called it 160 meters.. and the angle:

    Vector 4 direction.jpg

    336 degrees. Now that I had all four vectors determined, I summarized them on a card to take along on the trip:

    Vector summary.jpg

    In the next, and final installment of my land nav practice exercise, I will post video of carrying out the plan!
     
  35. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    Land Nav 5: The Trip

    Today Mary Ann went along and we finished part 5 of the land nav exercise. The trip went pretty much as planned, with some minor course corrections caused by walking around mud holes, downed trees and barbed wire fences.

    While this was not a strenuous or very long hike, I hoped to show how my approach to trip planning and "vectoring" can be used to put together enjoyable trips into the back country.

    Thanks for watching!

    [video=youtube;2-TvzblPWT4]http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-TvzblPWT4[/video]
     
  36. Fiddlehead

    Fiddlehead Scout

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    Just my 2 cents on the topic of map and compass.
    The majority of on line instructions center around the military lensatic style compass. Yes, they are cool looking.

    I would like to see intermediate to advanced instructions using a base plate type compass as opposed to the military lensatic compass.
    Having the base plate protractor built in is a big advantage over the lensatic type compass where you need a separate protractor for computing an azimuth. The lensatic is superior for calling in an artillery strike, but that level of accuracy isn't needed by hikers, hunters, or woods travelers.

    Some of the courses I see on line start by showing how to following a bearing, but neglect to show how they got the bearing and whether its a magnetic or a True North bearing. Details that can get you very lost.

    I like a sighting compass like the Suunto MC-2 with adjustable declination. The cover offers some protection for the compass as well as keeping the bezel from moving. The Brunton 15DCL is also very good and cheaper.
    On a budget, Brunton has a base plate compass with adjustable declination for 12 bucks. 9020G

    http://www.nrsweb.com/shop/product....product_7442&gclid=CMW_iojVs7QCFQqe4AodB2QAUw

    Some will disagree, but this has been my experience as a woodsman, military, and scouts.
     
  37. Prof

    Prof Guide Bushclass II

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    What would be intermediate or advanced?

    What topics would be consided intermediate or advanced? I, too, like a plate type of compass because the protractor function is built in, and accuracy is good enough for practical backwoods navigation.

    I have done triangulation, or resections; but instead of using a lensatic compass, I used a transit with a telescope on a tripod. Teaching trigonometry was the major motivation for doing these types of calculations, and trying to show applications of the Laws of Sines and Cosines.

    My grandfather's navigation books show how to find a ship's distance from shore, if you can identify two lighthouses a known distance apart. Back in 1918, he measured the angular distance with his sextant, and looked up the rest in tables. I have his sextant, and it can split a minute of arc (1/60 of a degree) into parts!

    For what I do in the woods, the plate-type compass is good enough; even the vector method I showed above may be more advanced than one would have to do. Again, it's about knowing and practicing skills, not just "getting by!"
     
  38. Crafter

    Crafter Scout

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    Totally, i am the same, moreover, if I do not chart for a while, I have problems teaching it back to myself :)

    I pulled out my old notes, and this is what i had: :) :)


    Tc +/- R/L WCA = Th

    Th +/- W/E VAR = Mh

    Mh +/- W/E DEV = Ch

    Like I can figure that out now !

    so instead, I wrote down the thought process with an example, and I keep that with me:

    ______________________________________________

    TAKING A BEARING:

    with declination 6 degrees east, meaning that the magnetic North is to the right of true north, if my magnetic bearing is 32 degrees, then my true bearing is 38 degrees.

    ______________________________________________

    So that thing seems to work for me now :)
     
  39. southernsurvivor

    southernsurvivor Tracker

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    Can't wait for the new year post. I always enjoy finding my way with a map and compass.
     
  40. AncientNCO

    AncientNCO Tracker

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    Declination can be a major pain when teaching it. In The Army we had to cover all angles...magnetic to grid, grid to magnetic, easterly or westerly declination's......it can drive you nuts! For most people who are in one location most of the time, once you have it your're set. One thing I like about my old Silva and newer Brunton compasses is that you can set your declination and be done with it.
     
  41. JohnnyC

    JohnnyC Banned Member Banned

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    I use a lot of stuff off GPSFileDepot when making custom topos. It's handy, but can take a little doing to get exactly what you want since they're primarily designed to load straight to a GPS.

    Hope this helps someone out:

    http://www.gpsfiledepot.com/
     
  42. ron d

    ron d Scout Bushclass I

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    When I was doing Search and Rescue we would do this on almost every training . We would measure off a course on level ground and pace it and count on the double step, we would measure a 100 meter line going over hilly brushy terrain. This would give a good indicaton of the difference in the pace counts on different terrains.

    ron d
     
  43. Crafter

    Crafter Scout

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    I ran across this bit of software :

    http://www.udeuschle.de/Panoramen.html

    you place yourself anywhere on the map and it gives you a graphical panorama of your surroundings, with bearings, distances, etc.

    Do we have anything similar in North America?

    Thanks.
     
  44. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    I heard some time ago that Google was working on something similar to the Google street view, but 100% coverage across the USA starting with the Grand Canyon.
     
  45. injun51

    injun51 Guide

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    I'll be keeping this thread in mind. Thanks
     
  46. ripcurlksm

    ripcurlksm Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Greats posts guys, I am really enjoying this thread and brushing up on nav. Moving from flat NJ to mountainous CA almost a decade ago, hiking ridgelines around hills and mountains creeps me out a little because its so easy to get turned around 50x. Its just something that I am not accustomed to yet.
     
  47. saustin1967

    saustin1967 Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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  48. ripcurlksm

    ripcurlksm Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    I'd like to ask a quick question on delineation. i know there are sayings like east = least and west = best, but I want to just understand it in a logical way in my mind.

    If I wanted to align my compass to true north and my map had this 12.5* delineation mark on it, I would align my compass with the North needle, then move it 12.5* to the left (counter clockwise) to point to true North, correct? Its been a while and I need to brush up on a few things, thanks :22:

    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Jan 23, 2013
  49. Shnick

    Shnick Bushwhacker Bushclass II

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    Yeah the compass will point to Magnetic North, but your map and its lines are in True North (North Pole).
    If you lived on the other side of the Agonic Line you'd adjust opposite.
     
  50. ripcurlksm

    ripcurlksm Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    thanks, its one of those things i knew but had to ask

    also whoops the spell check got me for declination
     

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