(B) Student Practice Tree Identification

Discussion in 'BushClass USA' started by abo4ster, Apr 20, 2011.

  1. NorthernOwl

    NorthernOwl Tracker

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    1. Saskatoon aka service berry
    My uses are berries and i use it to make self bows.
    20160915_191912.jpg

    2. Chokecherry
    My uses are berries for jam and wine, and for bows again. 20160915_192756.jpg

    3. Paper Birch
    My uses are birch tar made from birch bark and chaga that grows exclusively on birch trees.[​IMG]

    4. Trembling Aspen
    My uses are i make arrows from self harvested logs. And i use the inner bark in home medicines it acts like asprin.
    20160915_191736.jpg

    5. Willow
    My willow uses are weaving baskets with willow whips. And i am going to use the leaves to get tannins to tan hides eventually. 20160915_192318.jpg
     

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  2. JosephDurham

    JosephDurham Supporter Supporter

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    Tulip Poplar
    Liriodendron Tulipifera
    They grow to be upwards of 120 feet
    Amazing fire starter
    Can be used for cordage
    The inner bark has been used for inflammation of sores, fever, upset stomachs, tooth aches, and cough syrup
    Wonderful resource for building structures: houses, quivers, containers, baskets, et cetera



    Sweet Gum
    Liquidambar Styraciflua
    Growing as tall as 80’
    The sap can be gathered and used to treat skin irritation
    Many have used it within tobacco as a sleeping agent
    Chewing gum
    The sap can be used to treat coughs, sore throats, colds, diarrhea
    The leaf contains oils that are in some ways antimicrobial



    Pin Oak
    Quercus palustris
    These trees can find their way up to 72’ in length
    They are found abundantly in areas that are highly saturated which would lead to a good water source location
    Used a great deal in construction and as firewood
    Native Americans used the bark of the pin oak to treat intestinal pain



    Yellow Buckeye
    Aesculus Flava
    Can reach a height of 100’, however, 60-75’ is the average
    The seeds of these are poisonous if eaten raw
    Typically used for crates, boxes, and cheap furniture due to the weakness of the tree
    One of the most interesting facts that I found during my research is that the insides of the seeds, when they are infused with hot water can actually be used as a soap for the body or clothing, but can leave a nasty odor




    Red Maple
    Acer Rubrum
    Reaching up to 90’, but have been found to reach 115’
    The bark has been used in the treatment of sore eyes, as well as cramps and dysentery
    The inside of the bark, if boiled with lead can be used as an ink sourse
    Extremely fast growing to replenish the woodlands
    The sap contains sugar and can be used as a drink or as a sweetener on many foods
    It can be used as maple syrup, however, the amount obtained after boiling is much less than that of the sugar maple
     
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  3. NJHeart2Heart

    NJHeart2Heart Backyard Bushcrafter Supporter

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    created a full document for my Tree Identification Project (which I want to continue beyond the Bushclass requirement), so I'll just list the trees and give the link to the public document.

    NJHeart2Heart's Tree Identification, Part 1

    1. Witch Hazel
    2. Yellow Poplar
    3. White Pine
    4. American Beech
    5. Yellow Birch
    6. Red Oak (yep.. bonus entry)

    Here are just a few pictures, including some comparisons:

    Left: Big Toothed Aspen, Right: Yellow Birch
    30224806165_b3afbe0826_z.jpg

    Oh so lovely Yellow Birch bark :)

    30224819095_d4f2d71413_z.jpg

    Top: Red Oak, Bottom: White Oak
    30225225405_b0a3842a8a_z.jpg

    Probably my favorite comparison to date:
    Left: Yellow Birch, Right: American Beech

    29595114654_cdb35eb20e_z (1).jpg

    I find the "weird" leaves fun to identify. Here we have:
    Left: Sassafras, Right: Yellow Poplar, "Tulip Tree"

    30111644142_ae47af2f0a_z.jpg

    I had these two confused until I looked them up several times:
    Left: Red Maple (remember this by rough (serrated) edges), Right: Sugar Maple (remembered by the smooth edges)
    29597390273_58d779424c_z.jpg
     

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    Last edited: Oct 13, 2016
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  4. Lucho

    Lucho Tracker Bushclass I

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    Went out walking through the bush today. There are about five trees that look very similar, so I thought I'd use these five as the ones to identify, just so I could learn them. The leaves were fairly similar, which made identification that much harder, but now I know what they are. lol

    Common /Scientific Name
    Description of Tree
    Two Uses


    Little Leaf Linden
    Tilia cordata

    Tilia cordata is a deciduous tree growing to 66–131 ft tall, diameter 1/3 to 1/2 the height, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The bark is smooth and grayish when young, firm with vertical ridges and horizontal fissures when older. The crown is rounded in a formal oval shape to pyramidal. Branching is upright and increases in density with age

    Soft wood is good for carving as well as for bowdrill hearth and spindle.
    In Norse cultures, maidens “dance wildly around the village linden” in hopes of improving their fertility. Dancing maidens is never a bad thing to have around.


    Eastern Cottonwood
    Populus deltoides

    Populus deltoides is a large tree growing to 65–130 ft tall and with a trunk up to 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) diameter, one of the largest North American hardwood trees. The bark is silvery-white, smooth or lightly fissured when young, becoming dark gray and deeply fissured on old trees. The twigs are grayish-yellow and stout, with large triangular leaf scars.

    Live for 200 to 400 years (!)
    The bark tincture can been used to treat rheumatism, gout, and scurvy and infections of the chest.
    Used by Amerindians as a folk cancer remedy.


    Aspen
    Populus tremula

    It is a substantial deciduous tree growing to 66 ft tall by 33 ft broad, with a trunk up to 3 ft in diameter. The bark is pale greenish-grey and smooth on young trees with dark grey diamond-shaped lenticels, becoming dark grey and fissured on older trees. The adult leaves, produced on branches of mature trees, are nearly round, slightly wider than long.

    Slow to burn, it’s good for saunas.
    Slow to rot, it makes great roofing shingles.
    Good for pine pitch sticks as it doesn’t burn easily.
    They spread by root suckers, so the organism itself lives under ground in the root structure, unlike other trees that grow from seeds. To this end, the tree “organism” can live for thousands of years and can extend across many hectares.


    Quaking Aspen
    Populus tremuloides

    A tall, fast growing tree, usually 65–80 ft at maturity, with a trunk 8 inches to 2 feet 7 inches in diameter.
    The bark is relatively smooth, colored greenish-white to gray, and is marked by thick black horizontal scars and prominent black knots.

    Bark contains a substitute for quinine.
    The leaves are food for caterpillars, and as such, can be a location to catch caterpillars.
    The wood is very light, so good in construction in which weight may be a factor.
    Parallel vertical scars are tell-tale signs of elk, which strip off aspen bark with their front teeth. Good hunting sign to watch for.


    American Basswood
    Tilia americana

    The American basswood is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 60 to 120 ft with a trunk diameter of 3–5 ft at maturity. The crown is domed, the branches spreading, often pendulous. The bark is gray to light brown, with narrow, well defined fissures.

    Can live up to 200 years (!)
    Young leaves can be eated.
    Makes an excellent wood for bowdrill heath and spindle.
     

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  5. Mama Bears Backpack

    Mama Bears Backpack Tracker Bushclass I

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    Lucho, very nice to zee. I will present my lesson results within these pages soon. Thank you for sharing the link to this opportunity. I will continue to learn beside you my woodchuck friend.
     
  6. Claudiasboris

    Claudiasboris Tracker

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    Here are a few notable trees from Yorkshire. My local woods are far from ancient and many of the trees are rather juvenile. I also took many of the photographs recently, which wasn't too clever of me considering it's Autumn.

    Scots pine (pin us sylvestris)

    Britain's only native pine, it can grow up to 35 to 40 metres tall. Tends to have a slender trunk which turns reddy brown and flaky when mature. The cone is conical.
    Leaves: blue grey, in pairs, 4 to 7 cm long.
    Cones: conical.

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Uses: firewood, straight trunk makes good lumber of masts and the resin has been used to seal planks and barrels when made into a pitch. Treesforlife.org notes that scots pine has been used as a landscape marker. In the Scottish Highlands it can mark the burials of chieftains and warriors. In the lowlands and England it has been used to mark tracks, especially droveways.




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  7. Claudiasboris

    Claudiasboris Tracker

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    Pendiculate oak (quercus robur)

    Also known as English oak. Tall, up to 40 metres high, the bark is grey, cracked and ridged. Deciduous.
    Leaves: irregularly lobed, with 2 pointing backwards at the base.
    Fruit: acorns, form on long stalks (as opposed to sessile oak with no stalk).

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Uses: the timber is durable and has been used for everything from buildings to furniture. The wood makes good firewood when aged and dry. The acorns can be used to make flour and coffee; it has also been fodder for animals.
    Oak also has a high value to wildlife, one tree sustaining a large ecosystem.
    It also has strong British traditions, being sacred to the Druids and a symbol of strength in England.


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  8. Claudiasboris

    Claudiasboris Tracker

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    Rowan (sorbus aucuparia)

    Also known as mountain ash.
    Delicate deciduous tree up to 15 metres tall.
    Leaves: pinnate, with toothed leaflets in pairs (up to 15 on one leaf).
    Fruit: round, bright scarlet.
    Common in upland areas and acidic soil.

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    Uses: firewood, but not great. The berries are most useful and can be made into jelly or even brewed into ale. They have also been used for baiting traps for birds.


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  9. Claudiasboris

    Claudiasboris Tracker

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    White willow (salix alba)

    Very similar to s. fragilis, crack willow and many are probably hybrids.
    Deciduous, 15 to 20 metres tall, the bark is grey-brown with deep fissures.
    Leaves: long and narrow, pale on the underside.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    The tree pictured has leaves that look more crack than white and I have definitely heard the crack when its branches break. However, in summer the leaves are most definitely grey/green on the underside so I figure it's a hybrid.

    Uses: always grows near water so is a good indicator of streams or rivers.
    The bark has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic uses and is the traditional base of aspirin.
    The stems are flexible and are good for weaving.
    The wood itself is good for making cricket bats and whistles.


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  10. Claudiasboris

    Claudiasboris Tracker

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    Silver birch (betula pendula)

    A quick growing tree, one of the first to colonise an area, but rarely live past 100 years. Can grow to 20 to 30 metres. The bark is a distinctive silver or white with black patches.
    Leaves: oval and toothed with a pointed tip.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Uses: resinous wood that burns fierce but fast; the bark makes for a great tinder though and catches sparks easily.
    Improves the soil by bringing up deep nutrients and making them available for surrounding plants.
    Creates a habitat for hundreds of insect species which can form the base for an impressive ecosystem.
    Associated with numerous fungi, many of which have specific uses, such as birch polypore (razor strop).
    Birch brooms are used for purification and driving out spirits.


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  11. Claudiasboris

    Claudiasboris Tracker

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    Sorry that I took up a lot of posts: it seemed the most sensible way to do it at the time.

    Here are the books that I used for reference:

    [​IMG]

    The Hobbit Moleskin is my bushcraft notebook.

    Thanks to all involved in creating this. I've wanted to be better at tree identification for years and this has given me a great impetus. It's also created a fantastic resource.


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  12. NJHeart2Heart

    NJHeart2Heart Backyard Bushcrafter Supporter

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    Love the photo. What a great comparison of similar leaves! I think I'll edit my above post to include a few comparison photos :)
     
  13. Mama Bears Backpack

    Mama Bears Backpack Tracker Bushclass I

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    I've wanted to get into tree Id. I found these quite easily, finding the uses is a bit more depth that I needed to research. I will now have to challenge myself to find 5 additional trees because these ones were already familiar to me.

    I will break this into 5 posts for simplicity.

    Sugar Maple, Acer Saccharum. Leaves lobed, hairless, 3-7 inches. Growth 70-100 feet tall, 60-80 feet broad. Seeds are formed in double winged "keys" that flutter on the wind for seed dispersion.

    Can be tapped (2 taps per average tree) for sap in the early spring until the tops start to turn pink at which point the sap becomes bitter. Sap can be used as a water source if fresh water is not available in the spring. Sap can be boiled down to 1/10th it's original volume to give the well known maple syrup. Maple trees provide a great amount of shade, provide hard wood for wood projects and burning.

    This second picture shows the bark at different ages of growth.

    20161018_120922.jpg 20161018_122234.jpg
     
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  14. Mama Bears Backpack

    Mama Bears Backpack Tracker Bushclass I

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    White Birch. Betula papyrifera Slight heart/spade shaped leaf with serrated toothed edge. White barked tree with paper like shedding bark. Catkins that look almost like a caterpillar develop in the spring. These trees grow quickly, are relatively short lived in the other wise older forest around them. Although they are a hardwood, they also rot very quickly once they are on the ground.

    The bark from these trees can be uses as tinder that takes a spark quite easily. Thicker layers can be scraped up to create a little more hardy tinder, as well as being sliced off in sheets to make basket or container like projects and historically was used by native cultures to make canoes.

    These trees are known for being one of a very few species that Chaga can grow on. Chaga is a fungus that grows out of the side of the still living tree. Chaga has been scientifically studied for its medicinal properties and is touted as a miracle product. These trees can be tapped and the sap can be used for water, or as with maple, boiled down to make a syrup, usually late March or early April.

    20161018_122545.jpg 20161018_130806.jpg
     
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  15. Mama Bears Backpack

    Mama Bears Backpack Tracker Bushclass I

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    Pine. I am not sure what "type" of pine this is. Recognizing pine seperate from spruce or cedar comes with experience. The cone type opens out similar to what we think of as a typical "christmas tree"a wide based, narrow topped with thick petals on a conical shape.

    There are 40 varieties of pine trees. I suspect the ones I have here are red pine from looking at the red tint in the bark. These trees were very straight, and tall with branches only at the top of the forest canopy, but I was in a planted forest that had been managed for decades and this may be an artificial feature caused by pruning. In these pictures you can see well the growth of the branches all coming out in a layer, all around the trunk. Pine has this distinct growth habit, and knowing that helps in the identity process. Being a coniferous tree, It grows needles not leaves, and keeps its needles year round, making these trees are easy to identify in the winter as well.

    A soft wood, the resinous wood of pine trees can be used for fires, but is too resinous for home heating. With lower branches that die off, and are within reach, cones and needles littering the forest floor, there is always a part of the tree suitable forgetting that fire started.

    The needles can be gathered and chopped, brought to a boil in clean water, and this tea has a high vitamin content. Younger new paler green growth is best. Sap from this tree has medicinal properties for wound care. Inner bark can be used for covering wounds or sliced thin and fried to be used as a food source, pine bacon.

    Old fallen trees and stumps can provide segments with higher resin than the rest of the tree, and this resinous wood is our flammable fatwood.
    Many many more uses that are worth learning.
    20161018_120805.jpg 20161018_120810.jpg 20161018_120820.jpg 20161018_121106.jpg 20161018_121111.jpg 20161018_120820.jpg
     
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  16. Mama Bears Backpack

    Mama Bears Backpack Tracker Bushclass I

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    In my area of southern Ontario there is mention of the Alderville Black Oak Savanna. Where I have been hiking and taking these tree pictures isn't far from this area, so I "assume" the oaks I've snapped are black oak. Black oak leaves have a sharper point to the typical oak leaf shape. But regardless of leaf shape, all oak species have acorns that would be a dead give away. Oak is well known as a building material, oak cabinets and the like are common. Oak being a hardwood burns well and hot. Oak trees live hundreds of years in ideal situations, and they can grow to be massive. They provide shade, and temperature influences in a yard where they shelter our homes from wind and sun block. Acorns from the trees can be used as food, nuts can be used fresh, or dried. The nuts can be processed into grits, or dipped in a hot carmelized sugar mix and allowed to cool to become a candied nut. , or roasted and ground into flour for baking. These little gems can also be roasted and ground to brew up as a coffee, or hot beverage. 1/2 a cup of roasted acorn meal, boiled for 15 minutes in 4 cups of water.


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  17. Mama Bears Backpack

    Mama Bears Backpack Tracker Bushclass I

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    Mountain Ash, or Rowan Berry. This tree has often been considered to have toxic berries. This is not true. The berries are bitter, but not toxic. Folk lore also says this trees production of fruit indicates what type of winter we will have. I haven't seen this to be conclusive. Some years the trees are heavily laden with their deep orange clusters of berries, and some years they are sparse, but I think it is more likely an indication of how healthy the population of pollinating insects is in the area.

    I must admit I haven't seen many of these out in the forests or woods. I see them in my area mostly in urban settings.
    This is a smaller tree as far as trees go. About 30ft high, with a rounded contained growth habit rather than sprawling branches.

    Two reference books I am using have different latin names. One calls it pyrus americana and one calls it sorbus americana, (or decors, depending on the specifics) The leaves of these trees show as opposite leaflets on a long stem.

    The fruit, berries, become better after having been frozen a few times, so this is a winter harvest. The berries can be sweetened and stewed and used like cranberries, or made into a marmalade type jelly, or made into a fruit pie, or condiment accompaniment for game.

    If you've read any Harry Potter, you may have heard of Rowanwood Wands. Turned from the wood of these trees. There are occasionally burls in these trees as well, and wood workers covet burl wood for turning bowls and other designs because of the intricate grain.

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  18. Wolfcri

    Wolfcri Adventurer Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    White Birch
    bark for containers, root bark and leaves for tea
    IMG_5866.JPG



    Sweetgum
    gum for chewing and tinctures, inner bark as poultice for wound care
    IMG_5868.JPG



    Holly
    tea for joint pain, fermented bark of young shoots for birdlime
    IMG_5872.JPG



    Black Oak
    tannin, acorn flour
    IMG_5871.JPG
    IMG_5870.JPG



    Red Maple
    syrup, remedy for muscle aches
    IMG_5876.JPG
    IMG_5869.JPG
     

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  19. Bushcraft Grizz

    Bushcraft Grizz Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Tree ID and uses
    20161125_160155.jpg 20161125_160141.jpg
    Eastern white pine, Pinus strobus. Evergreen with 5 needles per bundle. Needles make a tea high in vitamin C, nuts can be roasted, inner bark can be used for flour. The resin can be used for a waterproof glue
    20161125_153833.jpg 20161125_204245.jpg
    White oak, Quercus alba. Deciduous hardwood with light colored scaly bark, leaves are rounded lobed. Acorns can be used for a coffee or flour. Animals usually prefer the acorns over others. Bark tannins used for tanning
    20161125_154033.jpg 20161125_154125.jpg
    Yellow/ tulip poplar, Liriodendron tulipifera. Deciduous straight trunked, high canopy, bark is smooth but furrowed. Great wood for bow drill sets, fibrous inner bark for cordage or tinder, bark can be peeled and used for containers
    20161123_130929_001.jpg 20161123_131147.jpg
    Red maple, Acer rubrum. Deciduous, leaves have small toothed edges, young bark is smooth older bark is scaly and darker. Sap can be a water substitute or boiled for syrup. It's a good wood for carving things like spoons or bowls
    20161123_130756.jpg 20161123_130848.jpg
    Eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana. Evergreen conifer, small sharp needles, scaly fibrous brown bark. Roots used for cordage, bark is great tinder, dry wood can be used for bow drill sets

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  20. himesrun

    himesrun Tracker

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    I've been putting this one off because it's winter and thus no leaves but I went ahead and did it anyway. This was actually a pretty fun project. I figured out that I don't know as much as I thought I did about tree identification. My Peterson Field Guide will definitely be staying in my pack for a while.

    1. Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.)
    Description: medium sized tree with both scale-like and longer sharply 3-sided, needle-like leaves, bark is dry, shreddy and not rigid
    Uses: can be use for all components of a bow drill set, outer bark can be used for tinder and inner bark and roots for cordage, boughs used for bedding

    IMG_1684.JPG
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    2.Black Walnut (Juglans nigra L.)
    Description: has alternate, feather-compound leaves with 7-17 narrow, toothed leaflets. Bark is dark and deeply grooved with non-shiny ridges
    Uses: nuts can be eaten and can be added to pemmican, husks can be used for stain, tannin from the bark can be used to tan animal skins, medicinal uses include purging the body of parasites and using as an antibacterial

    black walnut.jpg
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    3. Red Mulberry (Morus rubra L.)
    Description: bark is red/brown, leaves are "sandpapery" on top and hairy beneath, has toothed leaves with lobed and unlobed foliage present on the same tree
    Uses: berries can be eaten raw or dried and added to pemmican, berries can be used for trap bait, wine making, syrup and dye, roots can be used for cordage

    IMG_1677.JPG
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    mulberry3a.jpg
    mulberry.jpg
     
    Last edited: Jan 18, 2017
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  21. himesrun

    himesrun Tracker

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    4. Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum L.)
    Description: tall tree with older bark that tends to flake off leaving brown spots, deeply 5-lobed leaves with base of terminal leaf narrowed, broken twigs have unpleasant odor
    Uses: can harvest and drink sap in late winter/early spring for an energy drink that doesn't need purified, can use sap to make syrup, seeds can be boiled and eaten, young leaves can be eaten, branches work well for cooking, inner bark can be cooked, dried and ground into powder to thicken soups

    IMG_1675.JPG
    IMG_1676.JPG
    silver-maple-leaf.jpg

    5. Norway Spruce (Picea abies L. karst)
    Description
    : Conifer, twigs are hairless, needles are four sided, twigs and branches hang downward and is the only spruce that has drooping branches, cones are 4-6" long
    Uses: roots can be used for cordage, resin can be used as glue, antiseptic and wound closure, can make tea from needles, boughs used for bedding, smaller branches can be used to weave baskets

    IMG_1685.JPG
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    IMG_1687.JPG
     
    Last edited: Jan 18, 2017
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  22. vikingmedic

    vikingmedic Tracker Bushclass I

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    Like others I will be adding my 5 trees as separate posts.

    Tree 1:
    Common Name: White Pine
    Latin Name: Pinus Strobus
    Description: grows 80'-110' tall with needles that are 2"-4" long that grow in groups of 5 to a bundle. The bark is not scaly like other pines but is dark with deep furrows.
    Uses: it's a soft wood so it can be used for friction fires and the lumber is used extensively for construction
     

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  23. vikingmedic

    vikingmedic Tracker Bushclass I

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    Tree 2:

    Common Name: Eastern Hemlock
    Latin Name: Tsuga Canadensis
    Description: Needles are 5/16"-9/16" long and attached to the twig by slender stalks. The bark is dark and rough. The needles have a whiten underside
    Uses: Used mostly as railroad ties because they hold spikes very well and there is an increased use in construction. The dried twigs were taught to us in Boy Scouts as an excellent use as kindling because they catch fire very easily.
     

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  24. vikingmedic

    vikingmedic Tracker Bushclass I

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    Tree 3:

    Common Name: Gray Birch
    Latin Name: Betula Populifolia
    Description: it's a many stemmed tree with chalky white bark. It has triangular, tapered leaves. It has narrow horizontal marks like all birch trees.
    Uses: can be used for fire fuel or charcoal. And can be used for small woodenware.
     

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  25. vikingmedic

    vikingmedic Tracker Bushclass I

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    Tree 4:

    Common Name: Black Oak
    Latin Name: Quercus Velutina
    Description: Leaves are generally glossy above and mostly hairless beneath. Twigs are angled and hairless. The truck is dark and blocky and it produces acorns that have a bowl shaped cup. Leaves have teeth similar to Red Oaks
    Uses: Bark is rich in tannin and can be use to tan hides and the acorns can be ground up and flushed with hot water to remove the tannic acid and made into flour for cooking.
     

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  26. vikingmedic

    vikingmedic Tracker Bushclass I

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    Tree 5:

    Common Name: Eastern Redcedar
    Latin Name: Juniperus Virginiana
    Description: Needles are scale-like are about 1/4" in length. Bark is dry and "shreddy". It grows in dry soils and old fields.
    Uses: the heartwood is aromatic, strong and durable. As such it is used in things like cedar chests and cabinets. When the outer bark is stripped and roughed up it makes a great source of tinder for flint and steel fire making.
     

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  27. Jeff B.

    Jeff B. Tracker

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    1) Common name: Loblolly Pine or Southern Yellow Pine
    Latin name: Pinus Taeda L.
    Description:softwood, needles 6-9 inches long, cones are cylindrical, 3-6 inches long and prickly.
    Uses: 1) used alot in building materials for homes and is considered the most commercially important tree in the Southern US. 2) Good source of "fat wood."
    IMG_2945.JPG IMG_2946.JPG IMG_2948.JPG

    2) Common Name: American Holly
    Latin Name: Ilex Opaca Ait.
    Description: prickly and shiny evergreen leaves that are 2 to 4 inches long
    Uses: 1) Holly lumber is used piano keys 2) tea made from leaves treats colds and pneumonia.
    IMG_2950.JPG IMG_2949.JPG

    3) Common Name: Atlantic White Cedar
    Latin Name: Chamaecyparis Thyoides (L.) B.S.P.
    Description: Softwood, small to medium size tree with needle like leaves
    Uses: 1) Shipbuilding 2) wooden ware
    IMG_2953.JPG

    4) Common Name:Beech
    Latin Name: Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.
    Description: Hardwood, smooth gray bark, alternate composition
    Uses: 1) tool handles 2) excellent long-burning firewood
    IMG_2956.JPG IMG_2955.JPG

    5) Common Name: River Birch
    Latin Name: Betula nigra L.
    Description: shaggy bark of a red-brown color
    Uses: 1) Native americans boiled the sap to use as a sweetener 2) bark is a great source of tinder
    IMG_2957.JPG
     

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  28. jswi2374

    jswi2374 Scout Bushclass I

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    Dayton, Ohio
    Finally, my last class for Bushcraft Basic! This would have been so much easier in the summer!
    1. Common Apple
    Malus pumila
    small tree with deciduous leaves
    elliptic leaves with pointed tip, green yellow or red fruit
    cider, tool handles, firewood / charcoal, deer and hog bait
    IMG_0648.JPG
    2. Common Juniper
    Juniperus communis
    scalelike leaves with grey-blue berries, open crown, 5 - 25 ft. tall
    berries may be chewed to freshen breath, bedding material, shelter material
    IMG_0646.JPG
    3. Eastern White Pine
    Pinus strobus
    needles in bunches of 5, 4 - 8' cones with white resin at tips, tiers of branches, 80 - 150ft. tall
    needles may be boiled for tea, inner bark may be eaten, dry needles make good bedding and tinder
    IMG_0578.JPG
    4. Honey Locust
    Gleditsia triacanthos
    medium size tree with binnately compound leaves that turn yellow in fall.
    thorns can be used as sewing needles or fishhooks
    young saplings are flexible enough to weave together for shelter
    IMG_0568.JPG
    5. Sugar Maple
    Acer saccharum
    5 lobed leaves that turn red or gold in the fall, grey-blue bark, smooth when young, plated when old
    good wood for building shelters, seeds are edible and sweet, squirrels love them for food and nesting, leaves are good insulators
    IMG_0583.JPG
     
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  29. lone_woodsman

    lone_woodsman Supporter Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Location:
    Somerset,Pa
    My resource book
    [​IMG]
    1. Table Mountain Pine ( Pinus Pungens )
    Description-
    single or multiple crooked trunks,wide irregular crown
    the needles are stiff and pointed,very sappy
    2 uses-
    1 the sap is a good flame extender and can be used to make pitch glue
    2 the wood is good for fires ( fatwood )
    [​IMG] this is a young one

    2.Red Maple ( Acer Rubrum )
    Description-
    smooth bark with thin cracks,leaves are lobed and have a red stem,wood is hard
    2 uses-
    1. the sap can be used to make syrup
    2.you can make tea from the inner bark
    [​IMG] [​IMG]

    3. Eastern White Pine ( Pinus Strobus )
    Description is one of the largest conifers in pa,the needles are 5 per cluster and they are soft and flexible,it can grow 70 to 100 ft tall
    2 uses-
    1. pine needle tea
    2. the needles make a nice bedding material
    [​IMG] [​IMG]

    4. Red Oak (Quercus Rubra )
    Description
    single straight trunk,bark is light gray with narrow cracks,the wood has a reddish brown color
    2 uses-
    1. wood is used to make furniture, I made a bucksaw from red oak
    2. good as a shade tree
    [​IMG] [​IMG]

    5. Grey Birch ( Betula Populifolia )
    Description
    fast growing,10 to 30 ft tall,bark is chalky white and non-peeling,it likes moist soil,leaves are simple and shaped kinda like an arrow head
    2 uses
    1. you can drink the sap
    2. the inner bark can be cooked or dried then ground into a meal
    [​IMG] [​IMG]
     
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  30. CHIPPS09

    CHIPPS09 Tracker

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    This is my student tree id...these are the books I use...

    20170202_080840.jpg
    My first tree is a Douglas fir...pseudotsuna menziesii ..it is a conifer
    Used in lumber for construction ....Cone gathering is a source of income...
    Its stumpage is good for fatwood
    20170130_084956.jpg

    My second tree is ..Tamrac pine....Pines contorta.... it is a conifer
    Has been used for shingles for construction ..make tea...ornamental shade tree, dry undergrowth kindling
    20170202_082018.jpg 20170127_091418.jpg

    My third tree is western red cedar.. Thuja contorta..it is a conifer
    Its uses ...shakes and shingles for construction... bark is good for basket weaving ....
    ....scrapping makes good tinder stumpage good source for shavings.

    20170202_082054.jpg 20170202_082126.jpg

    My 4 tree is the giant sequoia... Sequoiadendron giganteum...it is a conifer
    It is an environmental key species some 2200 years old. Makes good wind break... tinder for stick stoves
    20170202_081950.jpg

    My 5th. tree is red alder..Alnus rubra it is a deciduous hardwood tree..it us used for carving..smoking fish , fire wood..

    20170202_093125.jpg 20170202_092540.jpg
     

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    Last edited: Feb 2, 2017
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  31. LJHfrstr

    LJHfrstr Supporter Supporter

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    Location:
    The Homestead NC
    5 trees and their uses:

    Eastern Red Cedar
    Juniperus virginiana
    a) Great for tinder from bark. b) Makes for a good hearth for friction fire. Also good for bushcraft structures as it does not rot easily and deters bugs. Easily identifiable as evergreen and bark is unmistakable.
    P1070262.JPG
    P1070263.JPG

    Tulip Poplar:
    Liriodendron tulipifera
    a) soft wood makes it great for spoon/utensil carving. b)easiest wood in my acreage to make feathers with. Also fantastic (I think better) for friction fires. Makes great hearths and a lot of the branches are nice and straight for making spindles.
    Easily identifiable with older trees as those tulip "blossoms" are on the tree year round; new grown in the spring and the "husks" get left behind all winter.
    P1070264.JPG
    P1070265.JPG

    White Pine:
    Pinus strobus
    a) FAT WOOD! b) Fresh needles make a nice tea. Also, everything about this wood is great for tinder; the fatwood, the needles, the pinecones. Easily identifiable as an evergreen and the bark is unmistakable.
    P1070266.JPG

    Willow Oak:
    Quercus phellos
    a) another good tree for friction fires; good spindles and hearths. b) excellent for twig fires - lots of small, quick drying branches make twig collection easy.
    Easily identifiable with the elongated leaves and is relatively fast growing for a hardwood.
    P1070268.JPG
    P1070269.JPG


    Bitternut Hickory:
    Carya cordiformis
    a) strips of bark from branches makes good natural cordage b) great for ax and hatchet handles. Young grown has also made for some good hiking sticks for the kids. Identifiable with the leaf structure and small, dense nuts.
    P1070270.JPG
    P1070271.JPG
     
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  32. dkgoesmo

    dkgoesmo Scruffy looking Nerfhearder Supporter Bushclass I

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    I Focused on the trees that are on our property. We also back up to the Mark Twain national forest so many are common where I wander in there. Forgive the winter time ID pictures as I took them today. Didn't want to wait till all the leaves were out.

    Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)
    Grows best in deep well-drained loam which has thick dark topsoil.
    Can be used for cordage
    The inner bark has been used for treatment of pain and inflammation. Common use in building.

    ID: The bark is brown, and furrowed. The branchlets are smooth, and lustrous, initially reddish, maturing to dark gray, and finally brown. Distinctive Tulip shaped leaf.
    tmp_32111-Tulip poplar 1-1790907602.jpg
    tmp_32111-Tulip poplar 2-1082770407.jpg llast years flower


    Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
    It grows best in soil that is deep, fertile, and moist but well-drained

    Gun stocks! Furniture, edible nuts, husks used for dye. Shade (my home is surrounded by them)

    ID: Oval, sharp-pointed leaves with indented edges alternate on the branches, with the largest leaves toward the center. The black or gray-brown bark shows heavy furrows and twigs are hollow inside.
    tmp_32111-Black walnut 31860296931.jpg Notice the bud forming
    tmp_32111-Black walnut 2-704317836.jpg

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)
    Prefers well-drained soil and cool, humid climates.

    Needles make a great tea. The pine nuts are edible but small and not worth that much effort. Inner bark edible, as used by natives. Pine cones make good fire starters. Sap ver good for making resin. Fallen needles work well in my bee smoker. Fatwood from standing dead.

    ID: Needles are in bundles of 5, or rarely 3 or 4, with a deciduous sheath. They are flexible, bluish-green, finely serrated, 2–5 in long.
    tmp_32111-Eastern white pine1286159621.jpg


    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana)

    Usually found in glades and bluffs, open rocky woods, pastures, old fields, roadsides and fencerows.

    Fence posts, plenty on my property. Used as a traditional Christmas tree in this part of Missouri. The shaved bark makes an great tinder. Can be used to make a bow drill set.

    ID: It has awl-like leaves, fibrous, peeling bark. Cones do not look like pine cones they look like blue fleshy berries.
    tmp_32111-Eastern red cedar671514529.jpg

    White oak (Quercus alba)
    Prefers slightly acidic to neutral, deep, moist, well-drained soil. While adaptable to other soil textures, it is intolerant of alkaline, shallow or abused soil.

    Leached acorns are edible and ground for flour. Tannins in the bark used for astringent.

    ID: Leaves Alternate, five to nine inches long, three to four inches wide. Oblong, seven to nine-lobed, usually seven-lobed.
    tmp_32111-White oak 11539273321.jpg
    tmp_32111-White oak 2-505386064.jpg


    Was a great morning to get out and walk the property. The pear and cherries are in bloom. Plus any day in February you can walk around in a tshirt is great! Thanks for looking.
     

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    Last edited: Feb 27, 2017
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  33. ERR

    ERR Happy Camper Supporter

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  34. atlastrekker

    atlastrekker Salty Sea Dog Supporter

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    Sierra Foothills
    Here are some of my favorite local trees for bushclass. It was fun learning about the trees I look at daily.
    2017-03-04 16.02.05.jpg
    Pacific Madrona - Arbutus Menziesii
    Grows to 100 feet tall and has a beautiful peeling bark. Very hard and strong wood. The berries are edible, and can also be used for bait while fishing. The bark can be used to make tea, though I'm not fond of the taste.

    2017-03-04 16.02.48.jpg
    Douglas Fir - Psuedotsuga Menziesii
    Can grow to 245 feet, these are some of the biggest trees in my area. They make great wood for shelter, very strong and straight. The pitch makes an excellent fire starter, and the needles are rich in vitamin c when brewed in a tea. This tea tastes ok to me.

    2017-03-04 19.02.59.jpg
    California Black Oak - Quercus Kelloggi Newb
    Trees can grow to 90 feet tall and live up to 500 years. We have some huge trees here locally that are very impressive. They typically are the most demanded wood for home heating here because they burn hot and don't make too much ash. The acorns can be ground to meal and eaten.

    2017-03-04 16.03.40.jpg
    Incense Cedar - Calocedrus Decurrens
    Can grow to 195 feet tall. The wood is great for fire starting and carving.

    2017-03-04 16.05.08.jpg
    Canyon Live Oak - Quercus Chrysolepis Liebm
    Grows to 80 feet and can grow into quite the snarled mess of branches and leaves. The wood is hard and makes great fires. The acorns can be made into a meal, but more importantly deer LOVE to eat them. Always a good tree to have near a hunting spot.
     
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  35. mtnoutdoors

    mtnoutdoors Scout

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    Location:
    Oklahoma
    The Books that I use are
    Oklahoma Forestry Services
    Peterson Field Guides
    ( Edible Wild Plants )
    -------------------------------------
    Common Name - Shotleaft Pine Yellow Pine

    Scientific Name - Pinus echinata Mill

    Description - Tall is a evergreen not very wide in diameter. Lone an narrow pine cone. as pine sap that comes out of a cut or where the tree got damage.

    Two Uses - You can make Pine needle Tea, and the best part you can get FATWOOD from it.

    -------------------------------------
    Common Name - Eastern Redcedar

    Scientific Name - Juniperus Virginians L.; juniper, redcedar, "cedar"

    Description - The Bark is reddish brown, thin, fibrous and shreddy they grow Tall and can get very wide in diameter. An they fall under the ever green family.

    Two Uses - Can get the bark and make a birds nest from it to help het your fire going. An the inner bark you can make baskets out of to help gather stuff you need.

    -------------------------------------
    Common Name - Black Cherry

    Scientific Name - Prunus serotina
    Ehrh,; Wild Cherry

    Description - The trees can get up to 50-70' tall has small Fruit that comes in around late summer the bark has a Dark Gray or blackish smoothish bark.

    Two Uses - You can use the fruit to make jam with or just eat. The wood is really good to cook over it gives a good Smokey taste to your food.

    -------------------------------------
    Common Name - White Oak

    Scientific Name - Quercus alba L.

    Description - Large tree 80' tall Leaves elliptical 4-9" the bark is a light gray. The truck can be as big as 2.5" wide.

    Two Uses - The acorns can be made in to flour. The wood is good for cooking on and for over night do to it puts off a lot of heat for a long time.

    -------------------------------------
    Common Name - Smooth Sumac

    Scientific Name - Rhus glabra L.

    Description - The Shrub small tree can be up to 15' has fruit at the top it grows in groups. DON'T GET MIX UP WITH POISON SUMAC.


    Two Uses - The fruit can make a lemonade by floating in what for a hour or over night. The wood is soft that you can carve with it.
     

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  36. Dylan92

    Dylan92 Tracker

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    Location:
    Newfoundland,Canada
    5 Trees found in Newfoundland...

    Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea)
    -Grows up to 20m in height
    -Consists of needles and cones as foliage
    -Bark is smooth with many resin bubbles

    The Balsam Fir is used commonly as the favourite Christmas tree of Newfoundland. It is used extensively as pulp wood and for lumber.
    920x920.jpg

    White Birch (Betula papyrifera)
    -Grows up to 21m high
    -Oval to heart shaped, double toothed leaves
    -Thin, smooth bark, easily separated into thin sheets

    The White Birch is an amazing fire log, has a long burning life, the bark is a superb fire starter/fuel. The birch is frequently the first species to grow in a burnover. This tree is the most favoured by beavers to create dams and homes.
    images.jpeg images-1.jpeg

    American Mountain Ash (Sorbs americana)
    -Small leaflets that are lance shaped
    -Glossy Orange-Red berries
    -Grows 3-9m in height
    -Smooth trunk when young, scaly as it ages

    The berries of this tree are eaten by many species of animals, birds and rodents. Moose love the bark, leaves and twigs. Other than feeding wildlife the tree is mostly used as ornamental.
    images-2.jpeg M ash.jpg

    Red Pine (Pinus resinosa)
    -Has longest needles of any Canadian Pine
    -Reddish colour trunks
    -Scaly Trunk
    -Grows up to 24m in height

    The Red Pine is primarily used as a construction wood. Sometimes the bark of the tree is used for tanning leather. It is also planted and used for Christmas trees.
    P88a.jpg

    White Spruce (Picea glauca)
    -Grows up to 30m in height
    -Bark is thin and scaly
    -Bark is ash brown in colour
    -Has stiff and sharp pointed needles as foliage

    The needles and cones are often eaten by many animals such a squirrels. Commonly used commercially as pulpwood. It is a great firewood once dried (about a year). The resin sap can be used as a glue once heated.
    whitespruce_cone.jpg White Spruce (2).JPG Small grouping of White Spruce.
     
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  37. Grunt06

    Grunt06 Supporter Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Cottonwood: Uses are it helps identify sources of water from a distance and good for friction fire hearth boards.
    20170326_120039.jpg

    Osage Orange: Uses are it's a great bow wood and the seeds are entitled with preparation.

    20170326_120509.jpg

    Burr Oak: Like all oaks has a tremendous amount of uses, process acorns down for flower and use the tannins for tanning hides are two common uses.
    20170327_170940.jpg

    Pecan: My main uses are eating the meat of the nut and oil made from them for cooking. Also an excellent wood to smoke meats with.
    pecan-foliage.jpg

    Mesquite: Seeds and pods can be ground into flour and the sap can be boiled and deleted to make an antiseptic for treating open wounds.
     
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  38. Red Yeti

    Red Yeti Tracker Bushclass I

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    Location:
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    Here's my five trees:


    Douglas fir
    (pseudotsuga menziesii)

    doug fir.jpg

    A very common evergreen in my region (Western WA) especially in the lowlands. It usually occurs on dry sites, rather than saturated ones.

    The needle attachments are spirally arranged on the branch, but the needles themselves tend to lie flat in either side of the branch in the their orientation. Doug firs have good strong wood for construction equal or better than many hardwood deciduous trees. The branches on big ones are especially dense and strong. The wood burns well, especially branch sections which grow slowly and are very dense. It has a good deal of pitch which has many used as sealant, glue, salve and combustion. This is the tree I go to for fatwood, which can be found in the solid, rot resistant sections the decomposed stumps and in the base of branches. The cones when very dry burn well in a small stove, but they often are moist on the ground and not much good as fuel.

    Western Red Cedar (Thuja Plicata)

    IMG_20170323_103013739.jpg

    A common evergreen often growing in moist sites that grows to usually be the tallest trees in the forest. The leaves are scales arranged on flattened branches. Mature cedars seem to often have low branches hanging down that provide good immediate cover in a downpour and a good chance of finding dead, dry kindling. This is where I look for a dry spot to take a break. There have been volumes written about the uses of cedar by the Native Americans. The bark is shaggy and fibrous, the inner bark is some of the best fire starter and cordage. The wood is very decay resistant and old growth heartwood is very nice for carving, esp with super sharp tools. It is often very straight gained, which is good for building shelter, arrows, cooking boards etc. It splits easily with a knife and makes a good choice for bow drill set when very dry.

    Red alder ( Alnus rubra)

    red alder.jpg

    This is a common deciduous tree in Western WA. It grows along streams but also on dry sites. It has oval leaves with parallel veins and serrated edges. The bark is light colored gray and generally smooth. This is a recolonizer of recently cleared areas. The wood is light colored and easy to carve especially when green and kept wet until the project is complete, then dried. It burns well when dry and has red inner bark that makes good tinder when dry. Alder is a good wood for smoking food or hides and the smoke has a nice mild flavor.

    Big leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum)


    maple.jpg



    This is a prominent deciduous tree in Western WA. It has typical 5 lobed maple leaves that can be huge and usable as quick containers or wrappings. It grows mainly on dry sites. It often carries a heavy load of mosses and lichens on the spreading branches. The wood can have some of the most amazing figure in the grain. The wood is light color and moderately strong. A good wood for furniture making. It also burns well, more rapidly than most fir.


    Black cottonwood (Populus balsamifera)

    cottonwood.jpg

    Tall deciduous with alternate leaves that are rounded to heart shaped with a sharp tip and glossy on top. These grow in wet sites, usually along rivers and streams. The bark is light tan, grey to green, smooth when young, and sort of furrowed & corky in older trees. It has a nice sweet smell in the spring and has sticky resin in the flowers. The wood is soft, not very rot resistant at all but easy to carve for a quick project, makes a decent bow drill spindle and fireboard. I read the native people ate the inner bark in the spring, but I have yet to try that. Cottonwood burns very fast and is not very good for heat output. It drops a downy flower/seed material in the spring that is probably where its name comes from. Near groves, this stuff can collect up in mounds on the ground. It is probably a good natural tinder, but I have not used it, will look to collect some this spring and give it some sparks.

    Thanks for looking.
     
    Last edited: Apr 6, 2017
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  39. DixiePreparedness

    DixiePreparedness Scout

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    Bushclass "five trees"


    White Oak
    Quercus alba
    (LEAVES TOO SMALL IN MY AREA FOR PHOTOS RIGHT NOW)

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    Tree: It reaches 80-100 feet in height and 3-4 feet in diameter. In the open, it develops a rounded spreading crown; in forest stands it has a tall, clear stem and smaller crown. It is deciduous.
    Leaves: Alternate, simple, 5 to 9 inches long and about half as broad. Deeply divided into 5 to 9 rounded, finger-like lobes.
    Bark: Thin, light ashy gray and covered with loose scales or broad plates.
    Uses: Lumber, Flooring, fuel/firewood, furniture..


    Sweet Gum
    Liquidambar Styraciflua
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    Large tree 80-150ft with shiny dark green leaves with 5-7 lobes. the seeds are contained in spiny balls that persist on the tree and fall throughout the winter.
    The bark is grey and deeply furrowed. The wood is used for flooring, furniture, and the making of particle board. Also "chipped" and used to produce wood pulp for paper mills.
    The hardened sap has been used as chewing gum.



    Shortleaf Pine
    Pinus echinata
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    Soft wood, tall, straight. Green needles, cones.
    Uses: Lumber and Paper products. Produces resin that is very flammable and can be made into glue. Inner bark is edible and a soothing tea can be made from the needles.



    Red Oak
    Quercus rubra
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    A large tree that grows to 90-100ft height and 3-5ft in diam. The tree is fast growing and can be 15-20ft tall in 10 years. Bark is smooth and grey in young trees turning to rough gnarly dark reddish black - rich in tannic acid.
    Wood is hard, heavy and coarse grained.... has an odor similar to cat feces when cut green.
    Primarily used for timber, interior trim and flooring.


    Longleaf pine
    Pinus palustris
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    The needles are borne in sheathed fascicles of three and are persistent for about two years. The dark green needles are 8" to 18" long.
    Mature and opened Cones are up to 8" Diameter and up to 10" tall.
    Longleaf pine is a medium to large tree that reaches a height of 80' to 100' tall. The crown is characterized by the "basketball-shaped" tufts of needles at the ends of stout twigs.
    Longleaf pines are used for lumber and pulpwood, the stumps are ground and the "pine oil" is extracted for manufacture of such products as "Pine-Sol".
    They are also the source of excellently rich "Fat Lightered" or fatwood.
     
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  40. grayghoste78

    grayghoste78 Tracker Bushclass I

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    Here are my 5 trees
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    Number 1
    Apple
    Good for smoking with.
    Good for making hard cider.
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    Number 2
    Ash tree
    Great burning wood even green.
    Good for making handles out of.
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    Number 3
    Cottonwood
    Inner bark makes ok cordage.
    Dry it makes a hot fast fire.
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    Number 4
    Chokecherry
    Makes great wine and jam
    Makes great bows.
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    Number 5
    Cedar
    Bark shavings make a good fire starter.
    Needles make a refreshing tea.
     
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  41. FreudianSlip

    FreudianSlip Scout

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    1. Boxelder - Acer negundo

    Acer negundo is a species of maple native to North America. In Canada it is commonly known as Manitoba maple and occasionally as elf maple.

    Softwood that can be used for friction fire. Native Americans will dry the inner bark to eat for food or hollow out the wood to make bellows.

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    2. American sweet gum - Liquidambar styraciflua

    Liquidambar styraciflua is a medium-sized to large tree, growing anywhere from 50–70 feet (15–21 m) in cultivation and up to 150 feet (46 m) in the wild, with a trunk up 2–3 feet (0.61–0.91 m) in diameter, on average. Trees may live to 400 years. The tree is a symmetrical shape and crowns into an egg shape when the branches get too heavy after its first two years of cultivation.


    The bark can be used to treat diarrhea. Sounds on the tree create sap that was traditionally chewed like gum or can be used as an adhesive.

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    3. Tulip poplar - Liriodendron tulipifera

    The tulip tree is one of the largest of the native trees of the eastern United States, known to reach the height of 60 m (190 ft), with a trunk 3 m (10 ft) in diameter; its ordinary height is 20 to 30 m (70 to 100 ft). It prefers deep, rich, and rather moist soil; it is common, though not abundant, nor is it solitary. Its roots are fleshy. Growth is fairly rapid, and the typical form of its head is conical.

    Great for bow drill sets and the inner bark can be used as tinder or cordage.

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    4. River birch - Betula nigra (black birch, river birch, water birch)

    is a species of birch native to the Eastern United States from New Hampshire west to southern Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and west to Texas. It is one of the few heat-tolerant birches in a family of mostly cold-weather trees which do not thrive in USDA Zone 6 and up. B. nigra commonly occurs in Flood plains and swamps.

    River birch bark is great for starting fires and the sap can be boiled for syrup.


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    Black Willow - Salix nigra

    It is a medium-sized deciduous tree, the largest North American species of willow, growing to 10–30 m (35–100 ft) tall, exceptionally up to 45 m (148 ft), with a trunk 50–80 centimeters (20–30 in) diameter.

    Great for friction fire, making baskets, treating headaches.
     
    Last edited: Apr 26, 2017
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  42. Meshach

    Meshach Tracker

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    1.) Sugar maple

    Acer saccharum

    Grows up to 98 feet, fissured or furrowed bark.
    Opposite arrangement. Simple composition. Deciduous hardwood.
    Uses: food (syrup) and the inner bark can be made into a tonic which is a dieuretic and expectorant.
     
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  43. Meshach

    Meshach Tracker

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    IMG_8126.JPG IMG_8127.JPG IMG_8125.JPG 2.) California Bay (Umbellularia californica)
    Alternate arrangement, simple composition, hardwood evergreen.
    Bark is almost scaley and the leaves are shiney, fragrant and smooth (they almost feel like leather)
    Uses: food (bay berries and leaves), crafts (bowls, spoons, even guitars)
     
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  44. Meshach

    Meshach Tracker

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    IMG_8128.JPG IMG_8129.JPG 3.) Apple (Malis pumila)

    Deciduous hardwood, alternate arrangement, simple composition.
    The leaves are interesting feeling, the underside is slightly fuzzy and the top is a little leathery.

    Uses: food (fruit) fire (applewood smoked bbq... mmmm) also medicine (stops constipation and is good for dysentery)
     

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  45. Meshach

    Meshach Tracker

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    4.) Sweet cherry (Prunus avium)
    Deciduous hardwood, alternate arrangement, simple composition.
    The blossoms on these things!
    Uses: food (fruit) crafts (cabinets, instruments)
     

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  46. Meshach

    Meshach Tracker

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    IMG_8159.JPG
    5.) lemon (citrus limon)
    Evergreen hardwood, alternate arrangement, simple composition.
    Even the leaves smell like lemon!

    Uses: electrolytes, food seasoning, cleaning agent and bug repellent!
     
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  47. Carlos del Rey

    Carlos del Rey Tracker Bushclass I

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    Salix alba (white willow)

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    fotos online

    Native European tree, growing to 80ft by 30ft, grow near streams and rivers, it's a great water indicator. Deciduous tree, lose their leaves in winter.

    Gray bark deeply fissured.

    Uses:

    - Edible leaves and young shoots.

    - The young stems are very flexible and are used in traps or basket making (I started the funnel for a crab trap).

    - Bark are used as the original source of salicylic acid (headache).



    Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)

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    fotos online

    Native Mediterranean (Iberian Peninsula) region tree, usual size from 40 ft to 90 ft. Crown very broad rounded, curved needles grown in pairs. Bark thick, deeply fissured, red-brown.

    Uses:

    * Great fatwood sorce, the best I have found.

    * Pine resin, good to start fire, and make pine pitch glue.

    * Pine neddle tea.



    Quercus ilex ( holm oak)

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    fotos online

    Native Mediterranean tree, 60 ft to 80 ft height. Grey bark, fissured with age. Evergreen leaves, narrowly oval toothed.

    Uses:

    * Edible acorns, also can be transformed it into flour to make bread.

    * Hard wood, best for charcoal making.



    Juniperus oxycedrus (prickly junipers)


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    fotos online

    Native Mediterranean, evergreen small coniferous with hard wood, valued for woodwork. Oils are used for different medicinal uses. Growing until to 50ft at a medium rate.

    Uses:

    -Cones tea, for the flu and respiratory diseases.

    -Tool handle wood.

    - Bark as a fire starting tinder.


    Ficus carica (fig tree)

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    fotos online


    Native from Asia Minor, naturalized in Europe, small deciduous tree of 10-34ft in height. Smooth white bark, and soft wood, fragrant leaves, for its odor attracts many insects and birds. Usually great groundwater indicator.

    Uses:

    * Leaf tea, for the toothache.

    * Edible fruit, flavorful and sweet.

    * Soft wood, good results as board or spindle to bow drill fire.
     
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  48. Church86

    Church86 Tracker Bushclass I

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    1. Sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) 5 pointed star leaf but can be 3 to 7. Small branches have the bark running in plates along them. hard wood. Mature trees have a deep ridged bark.
    -The sap can be used to treat common ailments such as skin problems, coughs, and ulcers. Strong antimicrobial agent.
    -Chewing gum
    2. Pine (Pinus) Conifer, needles, Soft wood, spiked cones, Flaky dark brown bark, dark red when scrapped.
    - Pine needle tea
    - Fatwood
    3. White oak (Quercus alba) Scale plated ash-gray bark.
    - Acorns for flour
    -Bark tannins used for tanning
    4. Eastern red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) Conifer, spiny needel like foliage, bark is stringy reddish brown and has a very distinct smell.
    - Roots and inner bark can be used for cordage and tender
    - Good for bow drill sets
    5. Mimosa (Albizia Julibrissin) Produces a silky long needle flower pink and white, bark is smooth, greenish gray, They produce seed pods
    - Anti-anxiety, Sleeping aid
    - Help fight against strains of cancer
    Mimosa

    20170507_150828.jpg
    Pine

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    White Oak

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    Red Cedar

    20170507_143935.jpg
    Mimosa

    20170507_143908.jpg
     
    Last edited: May 9, 2017
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  49. jpoe88

    jpoe88 Giddy Firemaker! Supporter

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    1. Cedar (Cedrus family)
    -Needle leaves similar to evergreen, coniferous, hardwood. Distributed branches and central trunk.
    -Wood and oil can be used to repel insects such as months.
    -Seeds are unpleasant to squirrels. Could be used as varmint/critter control

    2. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)
    -tall tree, alternating slender leaves, similar to hickory
    -seed can be eaten and wood used for smoking meat or building furniture

    3.Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda)
    -tall tree, coniferous, needle leaves
    -used in lumber and needles contain vitamin C. Can be brewed.

    4. Hickory (Carya tomentosa)
    -deciduous and leave similar to pecan.
    -very hardy and shock resistant wood, used in tool handles. Could be used in building temporary shelter. Shagbark extract can be used to make a syrup similar to maple syrup.

    5. Oak (Quercus)
    - deciduous, spiraly arranged, lobed leaves, fruit is acorns.
    -used in storage of various alcoholic drinks to add to flavoring. Structurally hardy wood, excellent for building.
     

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  50. Broke

    Broke Back yard bushcrafter Supporter

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    Being a backyard bushcrafter I decided to do this lesson in my yard. Thankfully we have 7 species of tree on our small city lot, and they are all fairly easy to identify, and mostly useful to boot.

    I will be using the Virginia Tech tree Id app as my primary resource for technical jargon.

    Tree #1
    boxelder, known in canuckistan as Manitoba maple. (Acer negundo L. ) Aceraceae family
    Leaf: Opposite, pinnately compound, 3 to 5 leaflets (sometimes 7), 2 to 4 inches long, margin coarsely serrate or somewhat lobed, shape variable but leaflets often resemble a classic maple leaf, light green above and paler below.
    Bark: Thin, gray to light brown, with shallow interlacing ridges; young bark is generally warty
    This is the first tree to shed in my yard and the last to bloom in spring. We typically get at least 1 tree service asking us if we want the dead tree cut down.
    Uses: can be tapped for sap to be made into syrup.
    Leaves can be packed around apples or other stored produce to increase storage time.
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    Tree #2
    Callery pear (Pyrus calleryana Decne.) Rosaceae family

    Leaf: Alternate, simple, heart-shaped to ovate with a finely serrated margin, 2 to 3 inches in length, shiny green above, paler and dull below.
    Flower: Large (2 to 4 inches across) clusters of showy white flowers each 1/2 to 3/4 inch across, appearing before or with the leaves; often so densely flowering that the entire tree appears white.
    Fruit: Small (1/2 inch diameter), round, brown pome, very bitter.
    Twig: Glossy brown to reddish brown, medium in texture, spur shoots present; terminal buds are large (1/4 to 1/2 inch long), ovate, and covered in light brown wooly hairs.
    Bark: At first smooth with numerous lenticels, light brown to reddish brown, becoming grayish brown with shallow furrows and scaly ridges.

    This is a very common landscaping tree in this area as it grows quickly and looks pretty, until a wind or ice storm tears it apart. Tree companies love it as it generates lots of revenue.
    The wood of this tree is good for smoking meats and cheeses as it produces good heat and sweet smoke.
    Good for bow drill sets.

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    Tree #3

    apple (Malus ioensis prairie crabapple. Mill.) Rosaceae family
    Leaf: Alternate, simple, elliptical to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches, pinnately veined, finely serrated, sometimes borne on spur shoots, green above and paler, white pubescent below and on the petiole.
    Flower: Species is monoecious; showy, may be white to red in color, with 5 petals for each flower; appear in the spring, usually in umbels.
    Fruit: Pomes of various sizes and color (cultivar dependent) ranging from yellow to red when ripe in the fall.
    Twig: Moderate in thickness, brown to gray, rapid growth usually gray hairy, generally many spur shoots; buds plump ovate, gray hairy.
    Bark: Variable, generally smooth when young, later thin and scaly.
    Form: Generally poor, with twisted trunks and low branching; spur shoots are prominent. When unpruned, numerous sucker shoots form along trunk and in crown.

    I call this my bonsai apple tree as it is very twisted and gnarly. Ours produces small fruit, very bitter, and a lovely show of white to pink flowers in early spring.
    The wood is very good for smoking, the young shoots/suckers make excellent marshmallow sticks as they are straight and sturdy.
    The fruit can be gathered and turned in to jam, although it takes a lot is sugar to be palatable.

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