(B) Student Practice Tree Identification

Discussion in 'BushClass USA' started by abo4ster, Apr 20, 2011.

  1. Broke

    Broke Back yard bushcrafter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Tree #4
    river birch (Betula nigra L.) Betulaceae family
    Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, rhombic to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, conspicuously doubly serrate, with a wedge-shaped base, green above, paler and fuzzy below.
    Flower: Species is monoecious; preformed, reddish green, male catkins near the end of the twig, 2 to 3 inches long; female catkins upright, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, light green, appear or elongate (males) in mid-spring.
    Fruit: Cone-like, aggregate, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, with many hairy scales, reddish brown, containing many tiny, 3-winged seeds, ripen and break apart in the fall.
    Twig: Slender, orangish brown in color, smooth or slightly pubescent, with the terminal bud absent. Lateral buds may be slightly pubescent. No wintergreen odor when cut.
    Bark: Smooth on young trees, salmon to rust colored; developing papery scales, exfoliating horizontally with several colors (creamy to orangish-brown) visible; later developing coarse scales.
    Form: Medium size tree reaching up to 70 feet tall. The trunk generally divides low into several upright trunks.

    This is one of my favorite trees in the yard. We are fortunate enough to have 2 clusters that are about 14 feet apart, perfect for hanging a hammock. They provide awesome shade to my back porch as well.
    The bark is an excellent tinder for firestarting.
    The sap can be harvested and made into syrup.
    The larger limbs are great for carving as well, I used one for the fowlers water bottle challenge.

    [​IMG]

    Tree #5

    red mulberry (Morus rubra L.) Moraceae family
    Leaf: Alternate, simple, broadly ovate to roughly orbicular, 3 to 5 inches long, serrate margin, highly variable in that they may have no lobes or be highly dissected into lobes; green above with a rough scabrous texture, paler and fuzzy below.
    Flower: Species is usually dioecious; small, pale green; male flowers are hanging catkins, 1 to 2 inches long; females are 1 inch long catkins, both appearing in late spring.
    Fruit: Resembling blackberries, cylindrical, 1 to 1 1/4 inches long, fleshy multiples of drupes, each containing a small seed, maturing in summer.
    Twig: Slender, zigzag, green changing to red-brown, sometimes pubescent; buds are covered with brown-margined overlapping scales; leaf scars shield-shaped and somewhat sunken; silvery-white filaments present when broken.
    Bark: Gray-brown and quite irregular with long, scaly ridges. Younger trees are often orangish, especially when wet.
    Form: A small tree to 60 feet in height, with a short trunk that typically branches low.

    This is a great tree to have in the yard, it is most years a prolific producer of fruit, and feeds the tree bacon very well.
    The root bark is anthelmintic and cathartic. A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of weakness, difficult urination, dysentery, tapeworms and as a panacea. The sap is used in the treatment of ringworm. Another report says that the milky juice obtained from the axis of the leaf is used. The fruits are used to reduce fevers.
    [​IMG]
     
  2. CivilizationDropout

    CivilizationDropout -MOA #17-MYOG #71- Supporter Bushcraft Friend

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    Here goes,
    Red Maple/Swamp Maple:Acer Rubrum
    Tall semi-straight deciduous trees with smooth to scaly bark depending on age.
    The leaves are palmate, viened and oppositely arranged.
    In the spring fuzzy red flowers appear by gender and are followed by winged seeds oppositely arranged on a stem, in clusters of stems.
    USES;
    1.) Sap has a high concentration of sugar, while not as high as the sugar maple (Acer Saccharum) it still yields syrup worthy sap.
    2.) It's tight grained white hardwood is prized for carving or constructing ornamental woodworking projects.
    IMG_0824.JPG IMG_0826.JPG IMG_0827.JPG

    White Pine/Weymouth Pine/Eastern or Northern White Pineinus Strobus
    Tall, knotty evergreen with vertically split bark with smooth facets and rough channels. Foliage is clusters of 5 needles within a deciduous sheath.
    Cones are large green to tan with papery seeds.
    USES;
    1) Tea made from its new growth needles is commonly consumed as a beverage, with the benefit of soothing sore throats, alleviating lung ailments and aiding proper kidney function.
    The bark is also reported to be medicinal, used in tincture as an expectorant and vitamin C supplement.
    2) Although it makes a mess, pine sap has a natural antibacterial quality, which is helpful when constructing equipment from natural materials. The seams of leather and other natural material projects can be tacked with the sap, waterproofing it AND preventing mold or rot. Also fatwood, DUH.
    IMG_0830.JPG IMG_0831.JPG IMG_0833.JPG

    Eastern Tulip/Yellow Poplar/Canoewood Tree:Liriodendron Tulipifera
    Very tall straight growing bole topped deciduous, with lobed leaves with a cross cut notch or straight apex. Bark is rough and vertically cleaved. Flowers are light green to yellow with orange blazes.
    USES;
    1) Good indicator of soil, prefers moist or swamplands, indicates acidic clay and heavy loamy soil(typical wetland/swamp environment).
    2) Soft, easy to craft wood. Typically used in the construction of dugout canoes.
    IMG_0836.JPG IMG_0837.JPG IMG_0834.JPG
     
    Last edited: May 14, 2017
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  3. CivilizationDropout

    CivilizationDropout -MOA #17-MYOG #71- Supporter Bushcraft Friend

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    Swamp Cedar/Shag Cedar:Thuja Occidentalis
    Tall straight growing evergreen, with dark red bark that peels in long strips. Needles are alternating along short twigs. Cones are small and tan in clusters.
    USES;
    1) Needles; can be made into a tea a) to be ingested for their high vitamin C content b)apply topically to alleviate rashes. Also a good source for deer in winter months.
    2) The sap is highly flammable and can be used as a sealant, ideally with its own wood for baskets, buckets and salt canoes. IMG_0899.JPG IMG_0897.JPG IMG_0845.JPG
    American Beech/North American Beech:Fagus Grandifolia
    Medium height smooth silver barked deciduous, retains its dead tan/brown sawtooth leaves late into the year. In the spring and summer its leaves are bright green.
    1) It's nuts are edible, common for forage amongst squirrels and deer. These nuts can be used to make a dark brown dye.
    2) it's bark is it common target for vandals being smooth, it's wood is often used as a cheaper alternative to walnut in the use of gun stocks and woodworking projects.
    IMG_0840.JPG IMG_0841.JPG IMG_0842.JPG

    Thanks! Can I use part of the trip to identify these trees as an outing?
     
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  4. Sgt. Mac

    Sgt. Mac Elder Staff Member Administrator Lifetime Supporter Bushclass I Bushclass II Bushclass Instructor

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    No sorry
     
  5. CivilizationDropout

    CivilizationDropout -MOA #17-MYOG #71- Supporter Bushcraft Friend

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    Figured, Thanks Mac!
     
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  6. MommaJ

    MommaJ Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Sassafras
    Sassafras albidum

    Description: Boo ghost shaped leaf (3 lobes mitten shape according to the book), greyish brownish bark, deep green leaf on the top slivery hairy underneath. Sweet smelling leaf and the roots smell like rootbear

    2 Uses:
    1. Food: Flavoring for rootbeer
    2. Dye: The bark has been used as a dye by Native tribes
    Sassafras 1.jpg Sassafras 2.jpg Sassafras 3.jpg Sassafras 4.jpg
     
  7. MommaJ

    MommaJ Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Pitch Pine
    Pinaceae Pinus

    Description: Dinosuar like scale bark,long 3"-5" cluster 3 needles, oval egg like cones,yellow/orange 1/2' fuzzy stalks on the branchs surrounded by needles(flower/baby)

    Uses:
    Medicine: Pine Tea for a source of vitamin c
    Fire: Pine sap
    pitch pine 1.jpg pitch pine 2.jpg pitch pine 3.jpg pitch pine.jpg
     
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  8. MommaJ

    MommaJ Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Black Oak
    Fagaceae Quercus

    Description: Multi lobed long leaf with 7 alternating lobes, acorn with large cap and loose scales,vertical deep scales grey bark

    Uses:
    1. lumber
    2. bark was used as a yellow dye for clothes
    black oak2.jpg black oak3.jpg
    black oak1.jpg
     
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  9. MommaJ

    MommaJ Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Sweetbay Magnolia
    Magnoliaceae Magnolia

    Description: single oval leaf about 2"-3", sweet citrus smelling leaves when crushed, green top and silvery underneath smooth brown grey bark

    Uses:
    1. trapping beaver, they love the leaves so baiting traps with the leaves would draw the beavers in hence earning it the nickname Beavertree
    2. wood is used in building furniture
    sweetbay1.jpg sweetbay2.jpg sweetbay3.jpg
     
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  10. MommaJ

    MommaJ Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    Atlantic white cedar
    Cupressaceae Chamaecyparis

    Description: Evergreen with fan like short cluster like flat needles, bark is vertical,fiber like greyish, small cones

    Uses:
    1. Ecology found in swamps
    2. wood is resistant to decay and as such used for phone poles
    atlantic cedar 1.jpg atlantic cedar 2.jpg atlantic cedar.jpg
     
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  11. Gina Hakamaki

    Gina Hakamaki Tinder Gatherer

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    IMG_2527.JPG
    White Pine
    Pinus strobus
    Soft wood with long needle like leaves in clusters of five.
    Used for pulpwood and construction timer.
    IMG_2528.JPG
    BalsamFir
    Abies balsamea
    Soft wood tree with fragrant needles that grow spiral but appear two ranked.
    Used for Christmas trees and pulp woodih
    IMG_2529.JPG
    White Birch
    Betula papyrifera
    Thebark characteristically seperates into thin papery layers as it ages being very white on the outside and orange on the inner surface
    Current uses are for turned products like dowels and handles and Native Americans used the bark as housing coverings and canoes.
    IMG_2530.JPG
    Jack Pine
    Pinus banksiana
    Characterized by extremely long needles in clusters of two with light soft wood
    Used for pulpwood and boxes

    IMG_2532.JPG
    Northern White Cedar
    Thuja occidentalis
    Tree has a dense wide base, often twisted or leaning and buttressed with the trunk sometimes diverted into 2-3 secondsry stems. Leaves are scale like in two pairs, opposite 4 ranked.
    Rustic furniture and cabin logs
     
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  12. Tomcat110

    Tomcat110 Tracker

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    Used these guides to aid me in identifying the trees and I also used the internet as a cross reference.
    20170712_131519.jpg
    Eastern White Pine, Pinus Stobus : evergreen tree that grows in well drained soil. Needles are grouped in 5 needle clusters. Cones are 3-6 inches long, with tapering scales.
    Uses: pine needle tea is high in vitamin C., sap can be used to cover wounds and as a Firestarter, inner bark is edible. 20170709_091411.jpg

    Staghorn Sumac, Rhus Thphina. Small tree in dry soil that grows in openings and along field edges. Alternate compound leaves, velvet hair twigs, topped. With red berry clusters.
    Uses: berry clusters can be used to make a refreshing tea. Also good for bow drill sets Screenshot_2016-08-12-21-01-50-1.png


    American Beech, Fagus Grandfolia. Smooth gray bark, alternate leaves that are toothed with parallel vixens on short stalks, fruit is a 3 sided nut

    uses: nuts are edible, dried leaves are good tinder, old trees can be tapped for sap 20170710_115836.jpg

    Sassafras. Brownish ridges bark, 3 different shaped leaves: mitten, oval, 3 loped.
    Uses : roots used for tea, stem, leaves, and roots are edible. Tender twigs can be used as a toothbrush 20170709_105501.jpg



    White Birch, Betula Papyrifera
    White paper like bark, pointed oval shaped leaves.
    Uses : bark can be made into containers and coverings, bark can also be used in fire starter, sap is drinkable 20170710_121014.jpg
     
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  13. bushcraft887

    bushcraft887 Tracker

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    Pine (pinus stobus) evergreen tree with a pleasant aroma. Needles can be made into a tea rich in vitamin c. Resin is a great fire starter.
    20170716_164440.jpg 20170716_164825.jpg

    Birch (betula papyrifera) tall thin tree with white papery bark. Bark is an excellent fire starter. Bark is also good for making containers.
    20170716_164259.jpg

    Eastern hemlock (tsuga canadensis) pyramid shaped tree with droopy branches. Boughs can be used to cover shelters and create bedding. Can be steeped into a tea. 20170716_163953.jpg
    White oak (quercus alba) hardwood tree with thick rough bark. Great wood for cooking. Acorns can be processed into flour. 20170716_165033.jpg

    Autumn olive (elaegnus umbellata) bush like tree with slivery leaves. Fruit can be eaten fresh or dried. Flowers can be used as an astringent.
    20170716_164140.jpg
     
    Last edited: Jul 17, 2017
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  14. MOX

    MOX Tracker

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    This was a fun one!

    1. Eastern White Pine (Pinus Strobus)
    Pine tree with needles growing in clusters of 5 needles. An extremely common conifer for New England.

    The needles are high in Vitamin C and can be used to make a great herbal tea in the bush. The wood is easily worked, and aesthetically pleasing (according to Henry David Thoreau, "there is no finer tree".)

    Eastern White Pine Needles.jpg Eastern White Pine Trunk.jpg

    2. Sugar Maple (Acer Saccharum)
    Leaves are simple 5-lobed leaves arranged opposite on the branch. The bottom two lobes are quite small. Seeds are samaras. Also very common in New England.

    The sugar maple can be tapped for sap, which has a variety of uses (including maple sugar, giving the tree its name). The hardwood is great for firewood and provides great heat.

    Red Maple Leaves (2).jpg Red Maple (Young) Bark.jpg

    3. Sassafras (Sassafras Albidum)
    Simple alternate leaves. Leaves may have 1, 2, or 3 round lobes on the same branch, making it easy to identify.

    The dried roots can be used to make great-tasting sassafras tea. The sassafras wood was used my Native Americans as a firestarter due to the natural oils found in the wood.

    Sassafras Albidum Leaves.jpg Sassafras Albidum Bark.jpg

    4.White Oak (Quercus Alba)
    Simple alternate leaves with rounded lobes. Acorns may be present.

    White Oak is a great hardwood firewood. The acorns can be ground up and used as a flour.

    White Oak Leaves (2).jpg White Oak Bark.jpg

    5. American Holly (Ilex Opaca)
    Waxy/leathery leaves with sharp teeth around the edges. Leaves in alternate pattern on the branch. Red berries may be present. I found this tree in southwestern RI, where it is fairly uncommon. The waxy leaves definitely stand out among the surrounding foliage.

    Leaves can be used to make a tea which alleviates cold/flu symptoms. The leaves can also be mashed up and used topically to treat sores/itching. Berries are inedible and cause diarrhea.

    American Holly Branch.jpg

    6. This one stumped me. At first I thought it was American Beech (there was a lot of it nearby), but those paired leaves threw me for a loop. It didn't look like an Elm, since the base of the leaves was symmetrical, and the leaves seemed too wide for birch (although the bark looked a little papery). Anybody know what it is?

    Paired Leaves.jpg
     
    Last edited: Aug 2, 2017
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  15. Seahunter

    Seahunter Tracker Bushclass I

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    #1 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)

    A tall evergreen conifer with a single trunk. The needles are short, grow singularly, and surrounds branch like bottle brush. The bark is highly furrowed. When a thin layer of bark is removed it looks like bacon. The cones are small and soft with bracts that resembles the hind end of a mouse.

    Grey squirrels feed on the nut in the cones. Along the coast Doug fir forests are good places to look for chanterelles and matsutakes in the winter. The sap can be heated and used as glue (but it can become brittle). This tree makes good fatwood.
    doug fir.JPG
    Doug fir cone.JPG

    #2 California black walnut (Juglans hindsii)

    This deciduous hardwood tree can have single or multiple trunks. Leaves opposite pinnately compound with long slender leaflets. Leaves are very pungent and smell like the husks of the nut. Nuts are about 1.5” in diameter when fully grown, have a thick green husk in the summer that turns to jet black in the winter. The bark is furrowed. The sapwood is light colored and the heart wood is dark brown. The twigs contain pith. It is mainly a riparian species.

    Nuts are edible, but slightly bitter. Husks can be used to permanently dye leather and fabric black. This tree is a sign that game may be present. Grey squirrels feed on these nuts and are frequently found in these trees.
    black walnut tree.JPG
    Black walnut leaf.JPG
    Black walnut nut.JPG

    #3 Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii)

    This hardwood deciduous tree is often one of the tallest in an oak woodland riparian forest in my area. Outer bark is deeply furrowed, and breaks off of dead trees in large chunks. Inner bark is very fibrous and looks like red jute twine. Leaves are alternate, simple, and heart shaped with blunt teeth along the margin. It is mainly a riparian species.

    It can be a sign that game is in the area. Grey squirrels often build nests in this tree. The inner bark makes good tinder as it can remain protected from the rain when coved by the outer bark on a standing dead tree. The inner bark will take a spark from a ferro rod. Can be a sign of surface water as they prefer large perineal streams.
    Cottonwood.JPG
    Cotton wood leaf bark.JPG
     
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  16. Seahunter

    Seahunter Tracker Bushclass I

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    #4 Blue elderberry (Sambucus nigra)

    This is a small deciduous hardwood tree. The young branches are green. Medium aged branches have red bark with what looks like pimples or warts. Older branches and the trunk have gray bark that is deeply furrowed. The leaves are long slender and green. They are opposite and pinnately compound. This tree often grows with multiple trunks or with forked trunks. The branches are segmented and filled with a pith core. It has wide, flat clusters of white flowers without leaves. The flower clusters later turn to very small green, then powder blue, then navy blue to black berries. The berries are covered with waxy white coating that makes them appear blue. This is typically a riparian species, but can be occasionally found upslope as well. I have found one on the dry open hill top at 3000 ft.

    When used for the spindle and hearth board this wood can produce an ember quite easily. The berries can be juiced and the juice can be eaten, but the seeds must be removed. The seeds, stems, and leaves are poisonous. The juice alone does not tasted good, but when mixed with black berries for jam it increases the depth and complexity of flavor. Can be confused with red elderberry which is not edible. However red elderberry has longer dome shaped clusters of flowers and berries. Red elderberries lack the white waxy coating and can be red in color although black berries are common as well.
    elder berry leaf.JPG
    elder branch.JPG
    elder berries.JPG

    #5 Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia)

    This tree is a hardwood evergreen. It has an alternate simple oblong leaf. The leaves are glossy and cupped with spines along the entire margin. The tip of the leaf is round rather than coming to a point as in interior live oak. The underside of the leaf is a duller color green and not glossy while the interior live oak’s leaf is yellow underneath and glossy. The bark is gray and smooth when young and then dark, thick and deeply furrowed when older.

    The acorns from this tree are eaten by deer, turkeys, and squirrels. It makes good firewood and is a tough wood that makes good tools. The acorns from this tree are said to be edible once processed, but I have not eaten them.
    coast live oak leaves.JPG
    coast live oak bark.JPG
     
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  17. NM_Coyote

    NM_Coyote Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    1) Desert Willow (Chilopsis Linearis)
    Long thin leaves. Many slender shoots forming dense groves. Requires shallow surface water.
    Uses: Water indicator, wood for bows.
    willow1.jpg
    willow2.jpg
     
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  18. NM_Coyote

    NM_Coyote Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    2) Cottonwood (Populus Fremontii)
    Heart-shaped deciduous leaves. Green in summer, turning bright yellow in fall. Smooth white bark when young becomes deeply creased and brown when older. Soft wood. Requires shallow ground water.
    Uses: Water indicator, wood for friction-fire components.
    cottonwood1.jpg cottonwood2.jpg
     
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  19. NM_Coyote

    NM_Coyote Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    3) Two-needle Pinyon Pine (Pinus Edulus)
    Short needled pine tree with needles growing in pairs.
    Uses: Pitch glue, edible nuts, fatwood for fire, pitch is antiseptic. Pitch sap is fire accelerant.

    pine1.jpg pine2.jpg
     
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  20. NM_Coyote

    NM_Coyote Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    4) One-seed Juniper (Juniperus Monosperma)
    Evergreen bears greyish-blue berries containing single seed. Linear striated fibrous bark that is greyish or brownish.
    Uses: Food, wood for building and fire, bark makes excellent tender nests.
    juniper1.jpg juniper2.jpg
     
    Last edited: Aug 18, 2017
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  21. NM_Coyote

    NM_Coyote Supporter Supporter Bushclass I

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    5) Gambel Oak (Quercus Gambelii)
    Small deciduous shrub or tree with round-lobed leaves.
    Uses: Hardwood for tools and weapons. Food (acorns)
    oak1.jpg oak2.jpg
     
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  22. N8tr Boy

    N8tr Boy Tracker

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    Momma J what book are U using?
     
  23. CuriousLearner

    CuriousLearner Nemophilist Supporter

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    First Tree

    - Common Name
    Northern Catalpa
    - Scientific (Latin) Name
    Catalpa Speciosa

    - Description of the tree in your words
    This is a massive tree which is easily identifiable due to its huge leaves and beanlike sprouts that hang off all over it. It is very unique.

    - Provide Two Uses

    1.) With this trees oversized leaves it makes for an excellent source of shade to protect yourself from the sun.
    2.) Fallen fruit and flowers are slippery after they fall, so they can be used as a lubricant.

    upload_2017-9-1_14-50-11.png
    upload_2017-9-1_14-50-18.png

    Second Tree

    - Common Name
    Norway Maple
    - Scientific (Latin) Name
    Acer Platanoides

    - Description of the tree in your words
    This is a larger size maple that does not have a hairy bark it also flowers during the year.

    - Provide Two Uses
    1.) As an invasive species, it would be useful as hard firewood. The National Park Service is not a fan of these ornamental trees.
    2.) It is good for making instruments, as many Stradivarius and other older Italian violins are suspected to be made from Norway maple.

    upload_2017-9-1_14-52-31.png
    upload_2017-9-1_14-52-38.png
     
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  24. CuriousLearner

    CuriousLearner Nemophilist Supporter

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    Third Tree

    - Common Name
    Cedar Elm
    - Scientific (Latin) Name
    Ulmus Crassifolia

    - Description of the tree in your words
    These trees are unique in the leaf color early in the year and a rough bark which appears on the tree. It is a deciduous hybrid which is extremely identifiable after being seen.

    - Provide Two Uses
    1.) This wood responds well to steam bending and holds nails and screws well.
    2.) This tree is commonly used in making baskets.
    upload_2017-9-1_14-53-44.png

    Fourth Tree


    - Common Name
    Pin Oak
    - Scientific (Latin) Name
    Quercus palustris

    - Description of the tree in your words
    It is a thin tree with a stereotypical oak leaf however the more smoothed U-Shape on the leaf makes it different from other Oaks such as the black oak. Additionally its bark is lighter as compared to a black oak.

    Provide Two Uses –
    1.) This wood is very useful for woodworking as it is often used in furniture, since it is easy to glue and takes stain and finishes very well.
    2.) This wood also is hard and heavy which makes it great for use as fence posts.

    upload_2017-9-1_14-55-14.png upload_2017-9-1_14-55-20.png

    Fifth Tree

    - Common Name
    Sassafras

    - Scientific (Latin) Name
    Sassafras albidum

    - Description of the tree in your words
    Sassafras has an extremely unique leaf which I like to that of a hoof-like shape and cracked bark. It is definitely easy to Identify, and I will be able to pick this one out in the future.

    -
    Provide Two Uses
    1.) Safrole distilled from Sassafras albidum has been used as a natural insect or pest deterrent.
    2.) Filé powder, also called gumbo filé, for its use in making gumbo, is a spicy herb made from the dried and ground leaves of the sassafras tree.

    upload_2017-9-1_14-56-14.png upload_2017-9-1_14-56-18.png
     
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  25. walpy

    walpy Tracker

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    Okay this will be the most difficult one for me so - here goes.

    1) Eastern White Pine - used for pine needle tea, and you can heat the sap to create a strong "glue".
    1.JPG

    2) Paper Birch - bark makes for great tinder, also as it's water impermeable you can make water carriers with it.
    2.JPG

    3) Black Locust - (this one I thought I was wrong with but have since been backed up on) great for bow making, you can also cook up the flowers into fritters!
    3.JPG

    4) Red Maple - a tea from the inner bark can help alleviate a cough or diarrhea, also the Native Americans used the bark to help with hives and muscle pain.
    4.JPG

    5) Northern White Cedar - A tea from this cedar will help with a headache, also, an obvious choice when looking to make a cedar strip canoe!
    5.JPG
     
    Last edited: Sep 7, 2017
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  26. Ryan Alexander

    Ryan Alexander Tracker

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    #1
    - American Hornbeam (Ironwood)
    - Carpinus caroliniana
    - Bark is thin with a smooth grey texture (Similar to beech), has muscle like ridges, rarely grows strait, leaf structure is chaotic and they look similar to beech but smaller in size and slightly narrow. Water indicator.
    - Flowers can be used in an infusion or decoction to relieve mental fatigue and physical tiredness.
    Leaves contain haemostatic properties that can help clot the blood and quicken healing of wounds & bruises.
    Tea can help treat the common cold, sore throats and headaches.
    The wood itself burns hot and can be used to make axe handles. About as hard and flexible as hickory.
    [​IMG][​IMG]

    #2
    -Birch
    -Betula
    - Dark grey bark appears to peel and flake off horizontally(Very few trees do that). Thin leaves... It's a water indicator.
    - Outer bark used to make birch oil. The oil acts as an anticeptic,disinfectant, pain killer and antispasmodic. Often used to reduce joint and muscle pain.
    Leaves are a great source of vitamin C.
    volatile oils in the bark make it an excellent 4 season fire starting(extending) resource.
    During spring you can tap the tree for birch sap, which is nice.
    [​IMG][​IMG]

    #3
    -Tulip Poplar
    -Leriodendrum tulipifera
    - The bark is greyish with white lines running vertical. The leafs have 4 points, no serations. You can also look up the tree they usually have flower buds at the top. Antler white dead wood is often found under the tree and the fiberous inner bark is obvious.
    - The inner bark and leafs are highly astringent, they help close things up and i believe they can be used in a decoction for diarea and upset stomach.
    The inner bark is very fiberous and makes decent cordage & tinder. It's a softwood, i've made plenty of bow drills with it that turned out nice.
    They grow fast and tall making them a good source of lumber. They are a water indicator.
    [​IMG][​IMG]

    #4
    -Black Walnut
    -Juglans nigra
    -Leaf structure has 8 rows parralel to eachother and flat. No leaf at the end. The bark is a dark brown, thick and rough in texture; has a somewhat diamond pattern to it.
    -The walnut hulls contain a natural iodine, tannins and a chemical known as juglone. The tannins and iodine can be used to disinfect a nasty wound and it can also be used to make a dark brown dye for staining clothing and wood.
    Juglone is used to stun fish in small streams. You can make an tincture from the inner bark, or a decoction from the leaves that expels parasites and ring worm.
    The nuts are known as a super food, just roast them and eat. I forgot the amount calories..
    [​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]

    #5
    - Sycamore
    - Platanus occidentalis
    - Gray with white spots and scales at the base. It's a maple, so the leafs look like maple leafs.
    - Great source of fire wood, it grows very large and had a lot of deadwood. It burns hot too.
    It's easily carved, makes great feather sticks, bow drill sets and etc.. You can tap the tree for sap.
    Inner bark is used as a laxitive, it's also good for coughs and colds.

    [​IMG][​IMG]
     
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  27. Capsicum

    Capsicum Tracker Bushclass I

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    Sassafras
    Sassafras albidum
    Leaves with one, two or three lobes. Bark has deep ridges, especially deep in older trees.
    It has been used culinarily extensively. The dried ground leaves are used to make File power for gumbos. The oils have been used as an aromatic and to flavor root beer. The bark can be used to make dye, the twigs can be chewing into a makeshift toothbrush, and the wood can be used as a fire starter due to the flammability of the oils within.
    [​IMG]

    Chestnut Oak
    Quercus montana
    Deeply ridged bark, alternating leaves with rounded teeth. Very large acorns.
    Uses include boat-building, furniture making, and other lumber applications. Also makes a good firewood.
    [​IMG]

    Red Mulberry
    Morus rubra
    Alternate leaves, sometimes with two or three lobes, finely toothed. Bark is shallowly ridged.
    Berries are used to make wine and pies, or eaten raw. Wood can be dried and used to smoke food.
    [​IMG]

    Red Maple
    Acer rubrum
    Red twigs and stems on leaves, alternate. Leaves turn deep red in autumn. Young trees have smooth bark that cracks as the tree grows old.
    Prized for use in furniture or musical instrument making due to curly wood tendancies. Can also be tapped for syrup, though used less frequently for this purpose than the sugar maple
    [​IMG]

    Virginia Pine
    Pinus virginiana
    Needles about 2 inches in length, thicker and stouter then the white pine, with a twist often occurring along the needle. Scaly bark. This species only occurs naturally near the Appalachian Mountains.
    Wood is used for making beams and railroad ties. It is also commonly used to make plywood. The sap can be used in fire making.
    [​IMG]
     
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  28. WolfmanZeke

    WolfmanZeke Tracker

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    Black Birch (Betula lenta)

    [​IMG][​IMG]





    This is a black birch, or sweet birch. Pretty cool tree with a lot of uses, like all birch trees.Break a twig and take a sniff. The wintergreen scent should confirm your ID


    The specimens in my area are all straight and wider than the average white birch tree, though not as wide as yellow birches in my area.. Its bark is fairly smooth in places but, as seen in the picture, can erupt into areas where the bark seems to almost separate and peel.

    The leaves are simple, and pretty much heart shaped and serrate


    It’s leaves and twigs are used for teas,( don't boil it, leave it in cold water for a bit), its sap is used as a beverage, and can be fermented, and of course, like all birches, it’s bark is a fine tinder, though I find yellow birch easier to use in such a way.




    Hemlock(Tsuga canadensis)

    [​IMG][​IMG]



    This old gal is a hemlock. Nice evergreen tree with a few uses including making a healthy tea. Smells like most evergreens to me, but to each their own. I also prefer white pines for tea


    This particular tree was about 40 ft,with a rough and flakey bark. It was also fighting for resources with many other plants and trees so it wasn’t as full as it could have been.


    The needles are short and flat,not rounded or multi-faced.

    I’ve read that Native Americans used tea made from leafy twig tips in steam baths for rheumatism, colds, fevers, diarrhea, coughs, stomach troubles, and scurvy. Like I said, I tried it once, but it wasn't my favorite. White pine wins on that score.


    Something interesting I learned is that the inner bark can be powdered and used as lining in shoes to prevent odors.



    Yellow Birch(Betula alleghaniensis)

    [​IMG][​IMG]


    My old friend the yellow birch. Love this as a firestarter using a Ferro rod, and makes amazing wintergreen tea. Don't boil it though.Like with the black birch, a couple hours in cold water and the tea is good to go.

    Along with the white pine, this may be one of my favorite trees in my area. Like the black birch, this tree smells of wintergreen when the twigs are snapped, and I often chew on a piece like its gum.


    The bark is very unique, with the tree often having an almost golden color and many peeling layers. The nice thing about using this tree for fire starting is that those peeling folds can be harvested from a live tree without hurting it, as long as it's broken early enough. It also doesn't need to be scraped to get powder, but those harvested folds can simply broken up and separated a bit to get a spark to catch. I've used this to get fires started in totally saturated and raining conditions.

    I’ve also sampled the sap from this tree, though I didn’t harvest it. I will be trying that next spring though.


    Like its cousin the black birch, the tree has simple heart shaped leaves with serrations.







    Chestnut Oak(Quercus montana)

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    This tree took awhile for me, because a lot of its leaves were contradictory, with some leaves having sharper serrations than others.Some leaves looked almost like Chinkapin oak leaves ,though I know there are none of those in my immediate vicinity. I also have never used this tree myself for anything other than firewood, though that will change.


    The bark on this tree is rough and creased, like many oaks, and the tree itself is tremendously sturdy, even the weaker samples in my area.


    Because of its strength this tree is used a lot in construction of boats, and i’ve read that the native americans used their bark in poultices and teas. The acorns can be used to make a flour substitute, though it needs lots and lots of boiling through several sessions to remove all the tannins from it.


    Eastern White Oak(Quercus Alba)

    [​IMG]


    Another oak tree super common where i tramp around, this is an easy one to identify. Straight, tall and strong, they have simple alternating leaves, and a lighter, scaly/rough bark.

    It is the tree most commonly used for barrel staves for barrels used for beverages. Like a fine bourbon for instance.

    I was also used for ships, in fact the USS Constitution, old ironsides herself, was made out of eastern white oak.


    Interestingly this tree is currently listed under the German Commission E. ( like the FDA in the states) as approved for the use of treating diarrhea.
     
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  29. 138zacvining

    138zacvining Feral bearded man Hobbyist Supporter Bushcraft Friend

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    Although I have I.D two trees already. I went ahead and I.D four more today . Two by book and two by internet. First is our good ole friend sassafras. One of the easiest trees to identify with its three different shaped leafs .[​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]The next is staghorn sumac. Another very easy to identify plant . A great use is bush lemonade or in conjunction with sassafras when making sassafras tea.[​IMG][​IMG]
    1. The next two are both edible as well , beauty berry and maypops. Both make wounderful jellies. The first is beauty berry...[​IMG][​IMG][​IMG]
      https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callicarpa

      the second is the maypop or also known as passionfruit .[​IMG][​IMG]

      https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passiflora_incarnata

      [​IMG]
     
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  30. Zoomie

    Zoomie Supporter Supporter

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    I thought I was going to knock this skill out in about 5 minutes. Well, 5 minutes turned in to 2 weeks with 3 separate trips to the woods, hours studying, and a new love affair with trees. SO yes, I'm openly admitting that this section kicked my butt. But I learned a ton !

    I approached with being very careful to note facts, my own personal observations (be they accurate or not), as well as specifically noting when I identified conflicting information. I hope that this is acceptable, versus just spewing book information. I am a mere student of trees and have recorded information as such.

    Living in East Tennessee, these two reference books helped me the most.

    Reference.JPG

    1) Eastern Red Cedar. Juniperus virginiana. Cupressaceae (Cypress) Family.

    The specimen I located was approximately 25 feet tall. I actually smelled it before seeing it. It was scraggly with its tiny leaves only toward the tips of the branches. Somewhat oblong/teardrop shape with a blunt top. Bark is darkish and peeling like a Birch, but peels are longer, narrow, and thicker. I did not know but learned while studying that there are both male and female species.

    Cedar is my personal go-to tree for high success fire making in nasty weather as Birch specimens are far rarer in my area. From a Bushcrafter's perspective, uses include wood for both tinder and fuel, and painstakingly use bark from light cordage, if one had to. From a medicinal perspective, the berries and leaves/needles are said to contain high levels of vitamin C and therefore can help with a cold. They also act as an expectorant. Correct dosage is extremely tricky as it acts as a diuretic.

    From an economic perspective, Cedar has been commercially used for siding, shingles, chests, and closet linings. It is a rot resistant and bug resistant wood.

    Interestingly, I love to find fallen cedars as they grow some incredible fungi specimens.

    Eastern Red Cedar 1.JPG
    Eastern Red Cedar 2.JPG

    2) River Birch. Betula Nigra. Betulaceae Family.

    Big, thick trunked beast with lots of branch forking. This specimen was leaned out over the lake. Bark peels worse than skin after a bad sunburn.

    Generally agreed that the Birch species is the king of tinder and fire starting. I have only had the pleasure of finding a few specimens. I personally witnessed the bark being lit and then floating on calm water until we physically extinguished it. I was also able to start a small fire during winter in the snow, when virtually all else failed. Bark has oils in it which allow it to light in the worst weather conditions.

    From a medicinal perspective, I was unable to obtain any vetted information with treatments. Some vague holistic stuff, but no generally accepted practices.

    Economically, the river birch has been used for furniture, , veneers, and cabinets, but is not used as frequently as its cousin, the Black Birch.

    River Birch.JPG

    3) Black Birch, Sweet Birch. Betula lenta. Betulaceae Family.

    I had to use this specimen for an unusual reason. Its the only example that I have ever seen. And in this case, its being used for Landscaping at Arbys in town!
    This is clearly a younger tree as it is only about 10 inches in diameter. Its been heavily pruned so I cannot comment in it's natural appearance in the wild.

    Looks very similar to a river birch, although much, much darker in appearance. The bark peels differently and seems even thinner than the mature River Birch I found. The bark smells like spearmint chewing gum to me. On another personal note, if you see a guy at Arbys with a plastic bag gathering bark, yeah......its probably me.

    During my studies I found conflicting information about economical uses. I read from two sources that black birch was more desirable than river birch as lumber. That said, I also read that Black birch trunks never grow to the size of River or Yellow Birches. I'm a bit confused about this so additional study is needed.

    Black Birch.JPG

    4) Tulip Poplar. Yellow P0plar. Liriodendron tulipifera. Magnoliaceae family.

    I shoes this tree because of its unfamiliarity and its really cool unique shaped leaves. Specimen I saw was only about 30 feet tall and kind of spindly. It was fighting for sunlight, being overshadowed by 30 foot red and white oaks. In my studies I read that these trees can reach heights of 100 feet with 48 inch trunks.

    Sparse, huge leaves, with very unique lobes. (See Pic below.) I cant speak to the poplar in terms of a fuel as I've never used it in any bushcrafting capacity.

    It is common knowledge that Poplar has been a very important lumber commodity for many years and is commercially grown. Its a relatively soft wood and therefore easy to work with, again, from a commercial perspective. It is most often used to make furniture. Cool tree and fun discovery for me!

    Tulip Poplar 1.JPG Tulup Poplar 2.JPG

    5) Northern Red Oak. Quercus Rubra. Fagceae aka Beech Family.

    Oaks are particularly tough to identify in this part of the country as we have a plethora of species growing here. I think close to half my time preparing this assignment was attributed to studying oaks. We wont even discuss that it can be virtually impossible to study a leaf since most up them are so high off the ground. And I am too dang old to be climbing trees!

    Massive tree 30 inch diameter trunk. 60 plus feet tall. Rough, uniform bark brownish with a hint of red. Thick billowy branches. Such a stately tree. Sadly, their stiffness makes them susceptible to storm damage as they offer little give, like the conifers.

    This is the time of year that mighty oaks drop acorns. Animals large and small forage extensively for acorns, due to their high protein and fat values. They attempting to put on weight for winter. Any oak is my go-to while looking for fallen branches for fire fuel. A hard wood. Pain to process with an axe. Easier for me to use my Gomboy saw to break down to manageable size.

    Acorns can be processed to make acorn flour although processing them aka finding a way to leach tanins out of them is both time consuming and cumbersome. I read that a pound of acorn flour contains 3200 calories.

    I am hard pressed to think of a more valuable tree to the forest and to man, as the mighty oak!



    Commercially, oak is used to make a broad range of consumer products.
    Common Red Oak 1.JPG Common Red Oak 2.jpg
     
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  31. Lassmanac

    Lassmanac Man Enough to be a Girl Scout Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Okay.... Tree identification in Jordan is quite a challenge. There aren't many trees that are native to this region and the ones that are can be difficult to find. Also, resources for research are few and far between. I have a "Field Guide to Jordan," but it only lists six tree species. The Royal Society for Conservation of Nature (RSCN) isn't as organized as one would have hoped. I did find an old book online published in the 1990s and printed off a copy. But, it's a copy of a copy of a copy, this pictures are all faded black and white and they only use the scientific names rather than the local common names. Anyhoo, it was a fun challenge and hopefully my results are good to go. I'll be posting each one individually, so if the Instructors want more info or photos of a particular species, or if one the entries doesn't count, please just let me know.....


    Tree #1:

    Allepo Pine
    Pinus halepensis
    The trees leaves are typical needle shaped, 3-4 inches long in clusters of 3 or 5. Trunk bark is striated as is typical with pines. It doesn't get very tall, only 5-6 meters high and is very round.
    Found in the highland areas of Eastern Mediterranean countries and Middle East. The tree is "endangered" in Jordan, so is protected by law and currently only survives as an ornamental tree or within one of the national nature preserve areas.
    This tree was highly valued as timber. The Greeks use the sap/resin to flavor a particular type of wine. It's considered a shade tree. Despite the dry climate, it is a great source of fatwood!!

    allepoPine.jpg

    IMG_20171001_161730.jpg
     
    Last edited: Oct 5, 2017
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  32. Lassmanac

    Lassmanac Man Enough to be a Girl Scout Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Tree #2

    Olive Tree
    Olea europaea

    This tree, now mainly agricultural, has grown wild in the country of Jordan for more than 10,000 years. Earliest records of its use date back to 4000bce.

    Growing to a height of 4-5 meters, this tree is easily identifiable by its coarse bark, flat thin leaves, and fruit.

    Today, this tree produces 70-80% of the GDP of Jordan and accounts for it's primary export products - olives, and olive oil. The tree is also used locally as firewood and decorative timber. It also makes really nice spoons!!

    olive.jpg
     
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  33. Lassmanac

    Lassmanac Man Enough to be a Girl Scout Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Tree #3

    Prickly Pear
    Opuntia Ficus

    characterized by large, flat, oval shaped, thick meaty leaves. The Jordanian variety has very small, fine spines.

    the plant is used both as food and has medicinal properties. It produces fruit in the spring that is sweet. however, it's leaves can be harvested yearly. It is used locally to treat stomach ailments.

    pricklyPear.jpg
     
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  34. Lassmanac

    Lassmanac Man Enough to be a Girl Scout Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Tree #4

    Lebanese Cedar
    Cedrus libani

    Grows up to 40 meters high. Wide trunk with scalyy bark. Needle-like leave arranged in spirals around branch shoots.

    Cedars are just as old if not older than the Olive trees in the region, but are known to live considerably longer because of their imperviousness to parasites. (The image below shows a cedar estimated to be between 5-6000 years old.)

    This species is used regionally for furniture and handicrafts. It's bark is a great tinder with finely processed and it makes a great ferro rod handle!

    cedar.jpg
     
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  35. Lassmanac

    Lassmanac Man Enough to be a Girl Scout Supporter Bushcraft Friend Bushclass I

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    Tree #5

    Finally, we have the White Saxaul...

    Haloxylon persicum

    a small desert scrub tree that can actually grow up to 5 meters in height depending on the area. this tree grows wild throughout Jordan and typically grows here to be about a meter or two high. it has a very deep taproot, and the leaves are typically scale-like growing directly on the branches.

    It is used to stabilize sandy soil in conservation areas. The wood is very dense and burns very hot, which makes it good for cooking fires. The locals also use the wood for decorative handicrafts.


    2017_0414_18115600-01.jpeg
     
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  36. Astyria

    Astyria Tracker

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    Okay, here are my five trees:

    Eastern Black Walnut:
    Juglans nigra
    This is a deciduous species that has distinctive compound leaves that are alternating. The bark is a grey-black with a diamond shape pattern. The leaves have a serrated edge and the fruit is a nut with a fleshy green husk. Uses: The fruit is rich in protein and is a highly prized food source. The husk of the fruit also contains tannin which makes it great for dying things such as cloth. The stain starts out green and then turns into a rich black stain.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    White Pine:
    Pinus strobus
    The white pine is a conifer that has needles in bundles of 5. The needles are long and flexible with a bluish color. The cones are long and slender and the bark has a whitish tone to it. Uses: The flexibility of the limbs of the white pine make it great for building shelters and to lash things together. The needles of the white pine when dried can offer excellent kindling to start fires with.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    White Oak:
    Quercus alba
    This is a hardwood that is known for it's grayish colored bark and lobed leaves. The leaves usually have 7 to 9 lobes that are alternate. The bark is scaled and fissured and has a distinct feature that over halfway up, it tends to form overlapping scales which helps in identification. This tree also produces acorns annually that are sessile or stalked. Uses: White oaks tend to produce a lot of acorns that animals like to eat in the fall. This can indicate that there may be a prey food in the area available for hunting. White oak is a very hard wood and is great for building more solid structures and is also great for firewood as it tends to burn longer.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Pitch Pine:
    Pinus rigida
    This pine has irregularly growing limbs closer to the top and tends to twist. The needles are grouped in fascicles of 3 and are stout and twisted. The trunks are straight and have plates of bark that are held together with resin from the tree. Uses: The resin in this tree can be used as a tar or to hold things together. Early settlers used the pine knots as torches because the resin is a fire extender. Also, because of it's regenerative properties that tend to result in stunted twisted trees, the pitch pine is used for bonsai.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Red Maple:
    Acer rubrum
    The red maple tree grows to be about 50 ft and all parts of the tree have some red in it to an extent. It is the most abundant native tree in eastern North America. The leaves of the tree are the easiest to distinguish it from other maples. They are arranged oppositely on the twigs and have 3-5 palmate lobes that are serrated. The lobes of the leaves are also very shallow in comparison to other maples. The bark is pale grey in younger trees but tends to darken and scale as the maple matures. Uses: Red maples are abundant and are great for carving because they are stronger than pines but still softer than most oaks. The red maple can also be tapped for syrup however it does not yield as much as some of the other maples.

    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
     
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  37. SaladFingers2.0

    SaladFingers2.0 Tinder Gatherer

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    My last submission before my five outings, hopefully!

    These trees are found on the east coast of Australia from NSW to
    Vic, but the focus is my local area of East Gippsland, in Victoria. The dominant trees are varieties of eucalyptus, acacia and melaleuca. Before this task I couldn't tell the difference between them if they weren't in flower and I still get challenged by the acacia and melaleuca but improve with each outing.
    The other two are just trees that interest me - the mangrove because my town is built near an old swamp and the willow because I spent a lot of time playing in by a lake as a child

    1.
    Brown Stringybark aka Eucalyptus baxteri (E. Baxteri)

    Are a medium sized tree of 10 to 40m high with thick, rough, fibrous stringy bark.

    [​IMG]

    The bark is often grey on top and red on the underside and can be pulled off in strips.

    [​IMG]

    Leaves are thick and glossy dark green, broadly lance-shaped asymmetric leaves, 7-15cm x 1.5-3cm. In bloom in warmer weather of December to April, it has white thick-stalked, flowers. These later become large rounded fruits.

    [​IMG]

    Eucalypts may provide food, medicines, containers, cordage and tools. The bark burns well as do the leaves, which contain oils that are like an accelerant.
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    2.*
    Swamp Paperbark or paperbark aka Melaleuca ericfolia

    Are a small sized tree that grows from 2 to 9m in height and have, as described by their name, pale white to brown papery bark.

    [​IMG]

    The bark can be pulled off in sheets.

    [​IMG]

    While instantly recognisable by the bark, the spiky leaves are dark green and are 7 to 15 mm long and about 1 mm wide. The small leaves grow forward from the limb like an arrow quiver. When in bloom, it has white flowers in brush like formation. The white flower spikes are 7 to 17 mm in length.

    The bark can be used for roofing like cladding or shingles in temporary shelters or huts like gunyahs.

    [​IMG]

    Can also be used for drawing and or painting on especially for navigational aids. The leaves may be crushed and inhaled to treat mild headaches.
    The thin paper like bark makes an excellent tinder and can be used in layers to wrap food for cooking, or making containers.
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    3.*
    Blackwood or Sally Wattle aka Acacia melanoxyln

    A small to relatively large tree, 8 - 30m in height

    [​IMG]

    The flowers appear in late winter, and are multi-branched inflorescences of pale yellow balls.

    [​IMG]

    The fragrance is sweet. The bark of Blackwoods is dark brown, deeply furrowed, and not typical of many wattles.

    [​IMG]

    It is a prized furniture timber and recently, a string instrument timber. The gum and seed are edible, the leaves were pounded and used as a fish poison, Bark can used to alleviate rheumatism, it is believed aborigines also derived a mild painkiller from the plant.
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    *4.
    Salix Alba aka White Weeping wilow

    Willow are a noxious but beautiful tree in m country. Flowers are produced in catkins in early spring, and pollinated by insects. It is dioecious, with male and female catkins on separate trees; the male catkins are 4–5 cm long, the female catkins 3–4 cm long at pollination, lengthening as the fruit matures. When mature in midsummer, the female catkins comprise numerous small (4 mm) capsules, each containing numerous minute seeds embedded in white down, which aids wind dispersal and profilic
    reproduction in waterways.

    [​IMG]

    It is a medium-sized to large deciduous tree growing up to 10–30 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The bark is grey-brown, and deeply fissured in older trees.

    [​IMG]

    The leaves are pale, due to a covering of very fine, silky white hairs, in particular on the underside, which is how it gets it's name; they are 5–10 cm long and 0.5–1.5 cm wide.

    [​IMG]

    Uses
    The branches are pliable and useful for weaving projects.
    The salacin in the tree bark is similar to asprin and has been used to treat aches and pains for centuries
    As a keen stumbling permacultural gardener what interests me most about the willow is that a willow cuttings can be used to encourage rootstock
    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    *5
    White or grey Mangrove aka Avicennia marina

    Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10m. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches.

    [​IMG]

    They have aerial roots (pneumatophores) that grow to around 20 by 1cm.

    [​IMG]

    It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the name. The leaves are thick, 5 to 8 cm long, a glossy bright green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the underside
    The flowers range from white to a golden yellow colour, are less than a cm across, and occur in clusters of 3 to 5.

    [​IMG]

    This produces a large fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling
    The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedlings

    Some Aboriginal people depended almost entirely on the fish
    and shellfish that flourished
    in mangrove habitats for their subsistence. Fish were caught or speared while crabs were collected to be eaten in communal feasts
    as evident by the many crab holes that can be found around estuary foreshores.

    Mangroves were used by early settlers for lime burning, boat building and soap making.
     
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  38. Thunderwood

    Thunderwood Scout

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    Common Persimmon
    Diospyros virginiana
    1) fruit is edible (albeit sour)
    2) due to it's dense grain, it's wood can be used for making digging tools.
     

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  39. Thunderwood

    Thunderwood Scout

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    Eastern White Pine
    Pinus strobus
    1) rosin can be used for fire starting and glue.
    2) it's needles can be used for making tea.
     

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  40. Thunderwood

    Thunderwood Scout

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    Sassafras
    Sassafras albidum
    1) its leaves dried and ground make File'- used to thicken soup or gumbo.
    2) it's roots can be used to make a root beer like tea.
     

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  41. Thunderwood

    Thunderwood Scout

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    Yellow Poplar
    Liriodendron tulipifera
    1) its bark can be stripped to make baskets.
    2) its wood is excellent for the bowdrill.
     

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  42. Thunderwood

    Thunderwood Scout

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    Eastern Redcedar
    Juniperus virginiana
    1) It's inner bark makes tinder when finely processed.
    2) it's wood is great for carving.
     

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  43. Quinlan

    Quinlan BCUSA Friend Bushcraft Friend

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    Greetings,

    OAK-1.jpg OAK-2.jpg ENGLISH OAK
    - Quercus robur
    - Large tree, 15 meters high at least, brown bark deeply fissured, leaves short stemmed with several lobes, full of fruits called acorns
    - Food source. Indirectly due to foliage breakdown in autumn, worth your while to search for mushrooms nearby, specifically oakbug milkcap. Directly, If you find yourself in a real bind, its acorns can be ground into flour for bread making.
    - Leathercraft use. Tannin found in the bark has been used to tan leather.


    PINE.jpg PINE
    - Pinus
    - Large tree, thick bark very scaly. Coniferous and evergreen, with needle leaves.
    - Food source. Many edible parts like pine nuts, pine pollen in spring, pine needle tea, inner part of the bark. Some pine species have poisonous bark or needles.
    - Building material. Timber for construction, pine needles for weaving a basket.
    - Making fire: Fatwood is a great fire starter.


    BIRCH-1.jpg BIRCH-2.jpg
    BIRCH, SILVER
    - Betula pendula
    - It can reach 30m in height, forming a light canopy with elegant, drooping branches. The white bark sheds layers like tissue paper and becomes black and rugged at the base. As the trees mature, the bark develops dark, diamond-shaped fissures. Twigs are smooth and have small dark warts. Light green leaves, small and triangular-shaped with a toothed edge, which fade to yellow in autumn. Both male and female flowers (catkins) are found on the same tree, from April to May. Male catkins are long and yellow-brown in colour, and hang in groups of two to four at the tips of shoots, like lambs' tails. Female catkins are smaller, short, bright green and erect.
    - Building material. Tough and heavy timber suitable for making furniture, handles and toys. Bark can be used for building canoes and storage containers.
    - Making fire. Birch is an excellent firewood and will burn unseasoned. However, it does burn very fast so is best mixed with slower burning wood such as Elm or Oak.
    - On it grows a mushroom with many important uses. The Birch Polypore, Piptoporus betulinus, grows on Birch trees and can be a parasite to living trees slowly killing them and then living on the dead tree for many years until the tree has rotted to nothing. The mushroom grows exclusively on Birch naturally but can be artificially introduced to other types of tree. It is edible, so good source of food. It is medicinal; it has been used as a tonic for the immune system, as an antiseptic to clean wounds and promote healing, a plaster that is microporus, antifungal and antiseptic and probably by stone age man to get rid of parasitic worms. A few studies suggest that eating it reduces fatigue and is mentally soothing. Tea can be made from the fresh or dried fungi. The fungus has also been used in the past as very fine emery cloth to polish metals (hardened cap), making ink blotters and even bases for mounting insects for collections. Smoldering dry it is used for tranquilizing bees, so it could provide protection from insects. It can be used shredded or whole as a fire starter or fire fuel.
    - Sources of info: Basic Illustrated Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms Book by Jim Meuninck:http://www.wildfooduk.com/mushroom-guides/birch-polypore-mushroom/


    CHESTNUT.jpg CHESTNUT
    - Castanea sativa
    - Grows to 35m and can live for up to 700 years. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, which develops vertical fissures with age. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. Oblong and toothed leaves with a pointed tip, and feature around 20 pairs of prominent parallel veins. Long, yellow catkins of mostly male flowers, with female flowers at the base. Sweet chestnut is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers are found on the same tree. Could be confused with: the nuts are similar to those of the horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) but are smaller and found in clusters.
    - Food source. Chestnuts can be roasted and used in a variety of recipes, including stuffing. The Romans ground sweet chestnuts into a flour or coarse meal. It may be processed to produce flour, bread, stuffing, fritters, puddings and cakes, as well a coffee substitute and thickener for soups, paste, puree. A sugar and an oil can be extracted from sweet chestnuts.
    - Building material. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. It is also used for stakes, gateposts, post and rail and paling fencing, which will last for twenty years or more, and for outdoor cladding (shingles) on buildings. It has also been used to make the stakes used in vineyards to support vines and also hop poles
    - Leather working. The bark of sweet chestnut wood has been an important source of the vegetable tannin used for tanning leather.
    - Making fire. It makes a good fuel wood, although it tends to spit on open fires.
    - Medicinal use. Chestnut leaves and bark are said to have an astringent, anti-inflammatory, expectorant and tonic properties.
    Infusions of the leaves have been used as a remedy for whooping cough and to treat other irritable conditions of the respiratory system. The leaves have also been used to in the treatment of diarrhea, rheumatism, to ease lower back pains and to relieve stiff muscles and joints.
    - Other uses. Ground sweet chestnuts were once used to make starch for laundry use and to whiten linen. A shampoo can be made from an infusion of leaves and fruit husks.
    - Source of info:http://www.ancient-tree-hunt.org.uk/morestuff/The+Sweet+Chestnut


    BEECH-1.jpg BEECH-2.jpg
    BEECH, COMMON
    - Fagus Sylvatica
    - Mature trees grow to a height of more than 40m and develop a huge domed crown. The bark is smooth, thin and grey, often with slight horizontal etchings. The reddish brown, torpedo-shaped leaf buds form on short stalks, and have a distinctive criss-cross pattern. Young leaves are lime green with silky hairs, which become darker green and lose their hairs as they mature. They are 4–9cm long, stalked, oval and pointed at the tip, with a wavy edge. Beech is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers grow on the same tree, in April and May. The tassel-like male catkins hang from long stalks at the end of twigs, while female flowers grow in pairs, surrounded by a cup. Fruits: the cup becomes woody once pollinated, and encloses one or two beech nuts (known as beechmast). Beech is wind pollinated. Could be confused with: hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). Beech leaves have wavy edges with small hairs as opposed to the serrated margins of hornbeam. Native truffle fungi grow in beech woods. These fungi are ectomycorrhizal, which means they help the host tree obtain nutrients in exchange for some of the sugar the tree produces through photosynthesis. Remember to take expert advice before picking or eating any wild fungi.
    - Wildlife value. Beech woodland makes an important habitat for many butterflies, particularly in open glades and along woodland rides. Beech foliage is eaten by the caterpillars of a number of moths, including the barred hook-tip, clay triple-lines and olive crescent. The seeds are eaten by mice, voles, squirrels and birds. Because beech trees live for so long they provide habitats for many deadwood specialists such as hole-nesting birds and wood-boring insects. The bark is often home to a variety of fungi, mosses and lichens.
    - Building material. Beech timber is used for furniture, cooking utensils, tool handles and sports equipment. Beech wood is used for the stocks of military rifles when traditionally preferred woods such as walnut are scarce or unavailable or as a lower-cost alternative.
    - Making fire. Beech timber is used for fuel, easily split and burning for many hours with bright but calm flames
    - Food source. It was traditionally used to smoke herring, ham, various sausages and some cheeses.The edible nuts, or masts, were once used to feed pigs, and in France they are still sometimes roasted and used as a coffee substitute. Slats of beech wood are washed in caustic soda to leach out any flavor or aroma characteristics and are spread around the bottom of fermentation tanks for beer. Leaves have a high enough fat content that they can be pressed for edible oil. Fresh from the tree, beech leaves in spring are a fine salad vegetable, as sweet as a mild cabbage though much softer in texture. The young leaves can be steeped in gin for several weeks, the liquor strained off and sweetened to give a light green/yellow liqueur called beech leaf noyau.

    General source of info for this practice skill report: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/

    Regards,

    Christos
     
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  44. Swineflu

    Swineflu Tracker

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    Pine - this one is Afghan Pine or Pinus eldarica
    • Dark green needles, mostly green pine cones, grey fissured bark.
    • Pine needle tea, high in vitamin C. Pine needle baskets, pine sap for glue, pine sap for fire starting, fatwood, pine sap for sealing wounds, pollen anthers are high in protien, pine nuts
    20170904_180625.jpg 20170904_205643.jpg


    Cedar/Juniper - This one is Juniperus ashei
    • Usually multi-trunked, blue berries (which are really cones), covered with loosely peeling and fibrous bark.
    • Good wood for friction fires, bark is good for cordage, berries can season meat, tinder-bark bundle can be used to brush your teeth.
    20170904_181609.jpg 20170904_205627.jpg

    Pecan - Carya illinoensis
    • Can grow very large. Yellow/green sickle-shaped leaflet with saw toothed edges, true leaves are alternate, terminal leaflet has 11-17 sickle-shaped leaflets. Will have pecan nuts.
    • Eat pecans, attract meat (deer, turkey and squirrels).
    20170904_183315.jpg 20170904_205659.jpg

    Oak - this one is Texas Red Oak or Quercus buckleyi
    • Medium to small tree, alternate leaves that are wide and deeply divided with usually 7 lobes.
    • Eat Acorns (after processing), attract meat (deer and squirrels). Can process by boiling in water and then used the the water as an antiseptic for skin diseases, cuts, sore throats and toothaches.
    20170904_183036.jpg 20170904_205713.jpg
    American Sycamore - Platanus occidentalis
    • Alternate and broad maple-like leaves. Trunk and limb complexion of mixed green, tan and cream. Round & spiky seed balls.
    • Good wood for friction fires, can be an indicator of a location with water, can be tapped for water.
    20170924_103625.jpg 20170924_183809.jpg
     
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  45. Micah

    Micah Tracker

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    Gonna go ahead and start of with the two im quite certain of.

    Red Maple.
    Deciduous.
    Scientific name: Acer rubrum
    My description: Bears wide opposite leaves with three points, stems are red.
    Uses: Sap contains sugars, can be turned into syrup but only yeilds half as much as a sugar maple. You can use the leaves to pack around fruits and things to help preserve them longer.
    20171025_175455.jpg

    Loblolly Pine.
    Evergreen.
    Scientific name: Pinus taeda
    My description: Scaley lookin, needles in groups of 3, skinny cones with pointy ends.
    Uses: Great source of fatwood, Resin can be used for a multitude of things like fuel, application to wounds, etc. Very common tree and a good source of timber.


    20171024_174306.jpg

    The third I do believe to be a Black Oak:
    Deciduous.
    Scientific name: Quercus velitina
    My decription: Deep linear lines in the bark, long leaves with 5 or 7 lobes each.
    Uses: Great for cabinetry, furniture, flooring and things. Inner bark can be used as a mild astringent.
    20171025_172810.jpg

    Beautyberry
    Callicarpa americana
    Shrub/small tree like plant with very distinct purple berries.
    Uses: Edible but bitter. Said to be a great natural insect repellent.
    20171025_175745.jpg

    Lastly, i have what i believe to be a Sugar Maple. I mostly just had the leaves to go off of as the trees were still very young, but the leaves certainly seem to match up with descriptions and illustrations online.
    Sugar Maple.
    Deciduous.
    My description: Leaves consisted of 5 pointy lobes. Opposite, not alternating.
    Uses: Maple syrup. Also good for cabinetry, furniture and flooring.
    20171025_172527.jpg


    Really hope I got these correct. Went out yesterday set on getting this task done assuming it would be easy, and boy was I wrong. I was researching all day, cross referencing with the photos I had taken, and did this tonight as well.
     
    Last edited: Oct 25, 2017
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  46. ramius

    ramius Supporter Supporter

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    Location:
    Sierra Nevada range
    My wife and I took a day trip to Yosemite to take a nice long walk in the woods, and since I had my tree identification book and camera handy, I figured today was the day to get this party started.
    Please forgive my mediocre (at best) photography skills.

    Tree number one:
    Canyon Live Oak
    Quercus chrysolepis
    Medium-sized tree, light grey slightly furrowed bark, produces acorns with fuzz on the cup. Hardwood tree.
    Native Americans used the acorns as a food staple after leaching the tannins
    AKA ‘Maul Oak’ because settlers liked using the tough and strong wood for mauls

    Tree number two:
    Douglas Fir
    Pseudotsuga menziesii
    Large tree, grayish deeply furrowed bark becoming darker with age, inner bark has layers of white and red. Cones with distinctive 3-pointed bracts. Prefers north-facing slopes.
    Extensively used for lumber, good firewood.
    The green boughs make excellent bedding material.

    Tree number three:
    California Black Oak
    Quercus kelloggii
    Medium-sized tree, with thick, dark brown bark. Produces an acorn with a scaly cup. Very intolerant of shade, easily dominated by conifers. Hardwood.
    Calfiornia Indians depended on acorns, stored in granaries.
    Excellent firewood, great tree for setting squirrel traps

    Tree number four:
    Incense Cedar
    Calocedrus decurrens
    Large tree, with cinnamon-colored, deeply furrowed bark. Cones are nearly an inch long with two woody scales that split lengthwise when ripe to expose winged seeds. Needles are aromatic when crushed.
    Hearth board for friction fire, bark is fibrous for cordage and a good tinder.
    Commonly used for lumber and pencil manufacture

    Tree number five:
    Ponderosa Pine (AKA Western Yellow Pine)
    Pinus ponderosa
    Large tree, on mature trees the bark is distinctive ‘puzzle pieces’ - outer bark is tan and inner bark is sulphur-yellow. Produces large cones with sharp tips on scales. Needles are grouped in 3’s. Very drought resistant tree, very deep and extensive roots.
    Pine boughs for bedding, excellent fire starter
    inner bark is a food source

    Bonus tree number six:
    Big Leaf Maple
    Acer macrophyllum
    Small to medium sized tree. with dark grey to brown bark that becomes furrowed with age. Leaves are very large and the leafstalk contains milky-white sap. The winged seeds are called samaras, and are paired and form a V shape.
    Have been used for syrup production but is uncommon
    Seeds are popular with small game = prime trap location

    Bonus fawn:

    Overachiever tree number seven:
    Mountain Dogwood
    Cornus nuttallii
    Medium sized tree with smooth, gray or brownish bark. Produces fruit that is shiny red, and grown in clusters. Prefers to grow under a canopy of conifers. Hardwood.
    Water source locater
    Bark used by native Americans as an emetic and laxative (note to self: don't eat the bark)
     
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2017
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  47. Timo.mac1

    Timo.mac1 Tracker

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    Late in the season. Did my best.

    20171111_093950.jpg 20171111_094100.jpg
    Weeping Willow
    Salix babylonica
    Uses:
    1. Inner bark can be brewed for a tea or chewed for general pain relief, toothache relief, and fever reduction.
    2. Inner bark can be used as a poultice for pain relief.
    3. The flexible branches are useful making fish traps, baskets, containers, weaving panels for walls, and wikiup frames.
    4. Fair to poor quality wood for making fires. Burns fast with low heat output.
    5. A tree that tells you where not to buy a home.


    20171111_094011.jpg
    River Birch
    Uses:
    1. The leaves can be chewed, or brewed in a tea as an infusion, in the treatment of dysentery.
    2. An infusion of the bark can be used to treat stomach problems and/or difficult urination
    3. The bark can be used as a kindling but is not as good a tinder as White Birch.
    4. Burns hot and fast as firewood.
    5. Another tree that tells you where not to buy a home.

    20171110_124357.jpg
    White Oak
    Quercus alba
    Uses:
    1. Dried branch bark tea used for treating diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding.
    2. Make whistles from the tops of the acorns for emergency use.
    3. If properly seasoned (2 years or more is best), it is a long, hot burning firewood.
    4. Strong construction material.

    20171109_115818.jpg
    White Spruce
    Prices glauca

    Uses:
    1. The inner bark and young shoots can be made into a tea with antiseptic properties
    2. Steamed bark and shoots is good for flu, coughs, and colds.
    3. Softened, mashed inner bark and shoots can be used as an antiseptic poultice.
    4. If seasoned it burns hot and fast. Doesn’t leave as much coal for cooking as hardwoods.

    20171110_124421.jpg

    Sugar Maple
    Acer saccharum
    Uses:
    1. Maple syrup can be harvested from the tree.
    2. It is a sturdy wood used for woodworking.
    3. Also a good building material for supports. and load bearing elements of shelters.
    4. Excellent firewood. Leaves good beds of. coals.
     
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  48. Timo.mac1

    Timo.mac1 Tracker

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    Neglected to include the scentific name for River Birch in the previous post - Betula nigra.
     
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