Tree #4 river birch (Betula nigra L.) Betulaceae family Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, rhombic to ovate, 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, conspicuously doubly serrate, with a wedge-shaped base, green above, paler and fuzzy below. Flower: Species is monoecious; preformed, reddish green, male catkins near the end of the twig, 2 to 3 inches long; female catkins upright, 1/4 to 1/2 inch long, light green, appear or elongate (males) in mid-spring. Fruit: Cone-like, aggregate, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, with many hairy scales, reddish brown, containing many tiny, 3-winged seeds, ripen and break apart in the fall. Twig: Slender, orangish brown in color, smooth or slightly pubescent, with the terminal bud absent. Lateral buds may be slightly pubescent. No wintergreen odor when cut. Bark: Smooth on young trees, salmon to rust colored; developing papery scales, exfoliating horizontally with several colors (creamy to orangish-brown) visible; later developing coarse scales. Form: Medium size tree reaching up to 70 feet tall. The trunk generally divides low into several upright trunks. This is one of my favorite trees in the yard. We are fortunate enough to have 2 clusters that are about 14 feet apart, perfect for hanging a hammock. They provide awesome shade to my back porch as well. The bark is an excellent tinder for firestarting. The sap can be harvested and made into syrup. The larger limbs are great for carving as well, I used one for the fowlers water bottle challenge. Tree #5 red mulberry (Morus rubra L.) Moraceae family Leaf: Alternate, simple, broadly ovate to roughly orbicular, 3 to 5 inches long, serrate margin, highly variable in that they may have no lobes or be highly dissected into lobes; green above with a rough scabrous texture, paler and fuzzy below. Flower: Species is usually dioecious; small, pale green; male flowers are hanging catkins, 1 to 2 inches long; females are 1 inch long catkins, both appearing in late spring. Fruit: Resembling blackberries, cylindrical, 1 to 1 1/4 inches long, fleshy multiples of drupes, each containing a small seed, maturing in summer. Twig: Slender, zigzag, green changing to red-brown, sometimes pubescent; buds are covered with brown-margined overlapping scales; leaf scars shield-shaped and somewhat sunken; silvery-white filaments present when broken. Bark: Gray-brown and quite irregular with long, scaly ridges. Younger trees are often orangish, especially when wet. Form: A small tree to 60 feet in height, with a short trunk that typically branches low. This is a great tree to have in the yard, it is most years a prolific producer of fruit, and feeds the tree bacon very well. The root bark is anthelmintic and cathartic. A tea made from the roots has been used in the treatment of weakness, difficult urination, dysentery, tapeworms and as a panacea. The sap is used in the treatment of ringworm. Another report says that the milky juice obtained from the axis of the leaf is used. The fruits are used to reduce fevers.